Digital Living covers many areas: audio, video, imaging, displays, digital media, networking, wireless, encryption, standards,  studios, labels, services, broadcasting, cable, satellite, telecom, FCC, advertising, cinema, postproduction, retail, Internet, custom installation, telematics, independent living, and more. (1,600+ terms)

digdia glossary
See Photos from the Consumer Electronics Show



























100Base-T - 100 Mbps Ethernet over twisted pair (CAT5) cable. 1000Base-T is Gigabit.
1080i - HDTV resolution of 1080x1920, w/16:9 aspect ratio, interlaced scan
1394 - see IEEE1394
1394TA - TA is Trade Association.  Sets stds for "Firewire" (Apple) or "iLink" (Sony) or IEEE1394
1-bit Amplifier - Audio is sampled at 2,822.4 kHz using pulse density modulation.  See DSD
1x-EVDO - see EVDO
- see EVDV
- see RTT
15 - a 15 second ad.
21DC - SMPTE digital cinema standards - fomerly DC28
23.976p - Number of frames/second professional video is shot at to match later NTSC conversion.
24p CineAlta - Popular 24 fps professional HD camcorder (Sony)
24PsF - 24 progressive segmented frames. Video captured at 24p, recorded as interlaced segments
2.5G - Almost 3G, offers moderate data over mobile wireless (e.g. GPRS, 1x-RTT and EDGE)
256QAM - Common QAM level used for cable downstream
292M - SMPTE serial link for uncompressed high definition video, 1.485 Gbps, coax.
2B1Q - 2 Binary, 1 Quarternary. Full duplex signaling over one line. 3 voltages: "01" "10" & both same
2K - Scan Resolution: 2048x1556 (35mm film) or 2048x1080. Digital Cinema candidate resolution (also 4K)
30 - a 30 second ad
3:2 pulldown - fitting 24 fps film to 60 fields/second video with a 3-2-3-2... frame pattern.
3G - 3rd Generation mobile wireless, offering high speed data and voice (e.g. CDMA 2000)
3GP - 3GPP video format for 3G phones
3GPP - 3G Partnership Program (ARIB, CCSA, ETSI, ATIS, TTA, and TTC)
4:1:1 - DV: 4 Luminance, 1 chrominance in odd line scans, 1 chrominance in even line scans
4:2:0p - DV: 4 Luminance, 1 chrominance in odd frame, 1 chrominance in even frame
4:2:2 - DV: 4 Luminance, 2 chrominance in odd line scans, 2 chrominance in even line scans
4:4:4 - Every picture element has luminance and chrominance, usually recorded in RGB, not YUV.
4:4:4:4 - 4:4:4 with an alpha channel
480i, 480p - 480x704 4:3 aspect ratio, interlaced or progressive respectively.  See SDTV, EDTV
4A's - American Association of Advertising Agencies
4C - "4C Entity. IBM, Intel, Matsushita (Panasonic), Toshiba - See CPRM, CPPM and CPSA
4G - Next gen wireless after 3G.  Includes LTE and WiMAX.
4K - Scan Resolution: 4096x3112 (35mm film) or 4096x2160. Good resolution relative to grain. (2K)
5C - Licensing group for DTCP (Hitachi, Intel, Matsushita (Panasonic), Sony and Toshiba) (DTLA)
5.1 Audio - 3 front, 2 rear and one subwoofer speakers.
59.94i - Number of fields/second NTSC TV has.
6.1 Audio - 3 front, 3 rear and one subwoofer speakers.
7.1 Audio - 3 front, 2 side, 2 rear and one subwoofer
720p - HDTV resolution of 720x1280 w/16:9 aspect ratio, progressive scan
775A - see EIA775A
75 ohm - Common coax impedance
802.3 - (IEEE) Ethernet. 802.3u = Fast Ethernet (100Mbps). 802.3ab/x = Gigabit on twisted-pair/optical.
802.3af - see PoE
802.11 - (IEEE) wireless Ethernet (WiFi). Stated bandwidth includes overhead, usable bandwidth is less
802.11a - 54 Mbps @ 5GHz. Has weaker wall penetration than 2.4 GHz.
802.11b - 11 Mbps @ 2.4GHz. Original and most common, particularly for hotspots
802.11e - (IEEE) Adds QoS to WiFi. Superset of WME (adds HCCA
- 54 Mbps @ 2.4GHz. Usually 802.11b compatible. Some proprietary systems are >54Mbps
802.11i - (IEEE) Adds AES & TKIP security to WiFi
802.11j - (IEEE) 802.11a with frequency adjusted for Japan.
802.11n - (IEEE) Uses MIMO to increase throughput to about 100 Mbps
802.11s - (IEEE) Mesh WiFi. Connects several nodes into a mesh to expand coverage area (proposed)
802.15 - (IEEE) Working on a PAN standard using ISM bands.

- see Bluetooth
802.15.3/a - see WiMedia

- see Zigbee. 802.15.4a is UWB vers.longer range (100m), data (0.5-1Mbps), ranging(1m)

802.16 - (IEEE) See WiMax. 100 Mbps; 16d is 70 Mbps. For stationary client devices

- Mobile version of 802.16
802.20 - (IEEE) Wireless mobile effort, arguably similar to and less visible than WiMax
8VSB - 8 Vestigial sideband. ATSC
HDTV broadcast modulation standard. (see CODFM)
Ω - Ohms
- Angstrom
A2DP - Advanced Audio Distribution Profile. Bluetooth protocol for sending stereo quality audio
AA - see average audience
AAC Advanced Audio Coding, one of the newer audio compression formats
AACS - Advanced Access Content System. Access &  limited personal copies of Blu-Ray & HD-DVDs.

AAF - Advanced Authoring Format - a standard used in production/postproduction
ABSolute - Qualcomm's proprietary encoding for digital cinema. Uses variable block sizes & DCT.
AC-3 - same as Dolby Digital
Academy Curve - Attenuates higher audio freq. in old movies to reduce noise from older systems
ACAP - Advanced Common Application Platform = MHP + OCAP + DASE for iTV (ATSC std)
ACAP-J - Procedural ACAP Java application
ACAP-X - declarative ACAP XHTML application (optional). Based on DASE
ACC - Advanced Color Correction, used to try to adjust color problems with NTSC
Access Channel - Cable channel reserved for community programming.
Access Point - Usually where there is a WiFi antenna
ACDL - ASC Color Decision List, aka ASC-CDL. Lets DP tell DI in Post desired color grading decisions
Achromatic - Having no hue. Example, gray or white.
ACI - Adjacent Channel Interference. When two signals are too close to each other.
ACL - Access Control List. Database showing with servers have access to a service.
ACNS - Application and Content Networking System (Cisco)
Acoustic Suspension - Sealed speakers uses trapped air to control woofers performance
ACP - Macrovision's Analog Copy Protection. Tweeks signal to make it difficult to copy (e.g. DVDs)
Active Matrix LCD - Switches each LCD pixel element separately - better picture than passive LCD
Acutance - Measure of sharpness of an object seen through the lens
Acuity - Ear's sensitivity to soft sounds
ADC - Analog to Digital Converter, digitizes an analog signal.
ADG - Art Directors Guild
ADIP - Address in Pre-Groove. DVD+RW scheme for encoding data in the "wobble" registration area
Admission control
- QoS method that works by gating network traffic.
ADS - Alternative (ad) delivery system.  Refers to satellite.
ADSL - Asymmetric DSL, higher bandwidth going to the consumer than coming back
ADSL2+ - Increases ADSL downstream bw to ~20 Mbps.
Advanced Simple Profile - Adds to Simple Profile MPEG4 better motion compensation, better video
AGC - Automatic Gain Control, used to try to adjust for variations in signal amplitude where needed
AES - Audio Engineering Society
AE - Automatic Exposure (cameras)
AES - Advanced Encryption Standard. Uses 128, 192 & 256 bit keys. Used in 802.11i.
AFD - Active Format Description. 4 bit code tells TV proper aspect ration and masking for program
AFH - Adaptive Frequency Hopping. Attempts to stay out of problem frequency channels.
AgX - Silver Halide (photo film)
AIFF - Audio Interchange File Format. Apple format for storing uncompressed audio.
AIT - Application Information Table. Info on bounded OCAP applications.
ALC - Automatic Level Control. See AGC
AHAM - Association of Home Appliance Mfrs.
AIN - Advanced Intelligent Network. Switched telephone network of computers service advanced features
AJAX - JavaScript talks asynchronously to server so page refreshes are not needed & response is faster
Aliasing - Image quality issue when image details are finer than display's resolution. See Nyquist
Alpha Channel - B&W Image used to define parts to knockout from an image.
alternative content - content other than the movie - live shows, sports, etc shown in digital cinema
AM - Amplitude Modulation. Subject to noise issues, so less used.
AMLCD - Active Matrix LCD
Amorphous Silicon TFT - slower transistor technology used in most LCD TFT panels. See Poly-Silicon
ANA - Association of National Advertisers.
Analog Hole - protected content that "leaks" into the open if display is connected via analog signals
Anamorphic Video - squeezes a widescreen picture into 4:3 aspect ratio, to be stretched later to view
Android - Google Linux-based software stack & libraries for portable devices.  See OHAP
Angstrom - 1/10,000,000,000 meter "", optical wavelength. 7,700 - red, 3,900 - violet.
Answer Print - final version of the film from which film for distribution is made (see Interpositive)
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
ANSI Contrast - Ratio of contrast between 16 black and white squares (accounts for uneven lighting)
ANSI Lumen - Measures projector brightness. Averages 9 sampled spots in lumens.
AOD - Advanced Optical Disk, now called HD-DVD
Aperture - Opening in lens, see F-Stop
APG - Advanced Program Guide, another name for an EPG or IPG
API - Application Programming Interface. Software interface between an application and OS.
- Small application program. Often run in browser or in a connected device. Often in Java
appointment TV - TV show that is so popular people will make sure they watch it when first broadcasted
APS - Analog Protection System (eg. Macrovision).
APTEL - PLC for South America
ARIB - Assoc of Radio Industries & Businesses (Japan) - has iTV standard based on GEM.
ARDG - Analog Reconstruction Discussion Group (CPTWG DHSG), discussing watermarking
ARM - Advanced RISC Machine. Popular embedded processor.
- Adaptive Rich Media Streaming (IBM)
- Average Revenue Per Unit. Service term for how much money per subscriber you get.
- image distortion caused by video compression imperfections
ASA - measure of capture sensitivity.  Similar to ISO.DIN. Note, Lux measures light, not sensitivity.
ASC - American Society of Cinematographers
ASC CDL - ASC Color Decision List, lets DP tell DI colorist preferred color grading choices
ASF - Advanced Systems Format. Microsoft extensible file format for Windows Media
ASIC - Application Specific IC. Usually designed for one purpose and vendor. (ASSP)
ASP - Average Selling Price
Aspect ratio old TVs = 4:3 (1.33), widescreen = 16:9 (1.77), Movies = 2.35 (also 1.85, 2.55 & 2.76)
ASSP - Application Specific Standard Product. An IC design for one purpose, but for multiple companies
ASTB - Advanced STB. Might included DVR, Internet, and other features besides basic TV viewing
Advanced Super Vertical. LCD mode for faster response times. (MVA, OCB)
Asymmetrical Compression - Encoding takes more processing power than decoding.

ATA - Advanced Technology Attachment, used for Disk Drives.  aka IDE
ATIS - Alliance for Telecommunications Solutions
ATM - Asynchronous Transport Mode, common broadband backbone for telecom
ATRAC3 Sony's proprietary method for compressing music (alternative to MP3 and AAC)
ATSC - Advanced Television Systems Committee, U.S. DTV
ATTC - Advanced Television Technology Center, tests terrestrial DTV
Attenuate - To reduce. An Attenuator reduces the signal to better match a device's input needs.
ATV - Advanced TV standard by ATSC. Most just say DTV
ATV Forum - Advanced TV Forum.  Promoted interactive TV.
AU - Audio file format for sound clips on the Internet, compatible with Windows and Mac
Audio-Follow-Video - when audio and video are separated, allows audio to travel with video stream
Authoring - Transferring processed video onto a medium, such as DVD or CD, including menus, etc.
Authorized Domain - equipment within an authorized domain are allowed to decode protected content
AutoPC - Microsoft's WinCE system for telematics
AV - Audio Video
AVC - AV Control for device control (e.g. a camcorder) via 1394
AVC - Advanced Video Codec, jointly developed by ITU, ISO, IEC.  aka H.264 or MPEG4 part 10
AVC FRExt - AVC Fidelity Range Extension. Adds profiles good for HD
AVCHD - Sony/Panasonic HD format for camcorders records 20 Minutes onto 8cm DVD. Uses AVC
Average Audience - number of households tuned to a cable channel during a average minute.
AVI - Audio Video Interleave.  Common format for video clips.  DV-AVI is used by digital camcorders.
AV Network - Any network that is used to pass AV content and TCP/IP traffic.
AVO - AV Object. MPEG4 can break up a scene into AVOs that can be separately manipulated
AVR - AV Receiver.  The old "stereo" is now a multi-channel sound system for home theaters
A-Weighting - Audio measurement that tries to match ear's sensitivity, which is highest in mid-ranges
AWG - American Wire Gauge standard.
AWS - Advanced Wireless Services, (AWS-1), 2006 3G spectrum (1.71 & 2.11 GHz), Wireless Cable interests
AZ - Azimuth


Back channel - path from consumer to the station or headend.
Balanced Input
- See XLR
Balun - connects balanced (cond. ungrounded - 300ohm) to unbalanced (one cond. grounded - 75 ohm)
Banding - Not enough color depth creates visible bands of color in areas with subtle color changes.
Bars and Tones - Test pattern at start and end of tape
Bass - Tones typically below 300 Hz
Baud - Symbols per second in serial transmissions.
BBFC - British Board of Film Classification
BCA - Burst Cutting Area. Area on DVD near hub for cutting serial numbers, etc.
B-CAS - Broadcast satellite Conditional Access System, used in Japan. Uses B-CAS smartcard
BD - Blu-ray Disc. BD-RE is rewriteable. BD-R is Write-once. 23.3, 25.3, 27GB & 46.6, 50, 54GB dual
BDA - Blu-ray Disc Assoc.
BD-J - Blu-ray Java for interactive features (HP wants them to use iHD
BD-ROM - Blu-Ray
ROM disc. Format for movie distribution.
Beaming - Harsh higher frequency sounds from speaker, with tendency to show up in spots.
BEDO DRAM - Burst EDO DRAM. Fetches 4 memory addresses at once to speed access.

- Commercial broadcast grade video tape system
BER - Bit Error Rate, which for cabled networking can be low, but for wireless an issue.
Betacam SX - Medium grade prof. DV tape (Sony), uses MPEG2. See Digital Betacam
B-Frame - MPEG bi-directional prediction frame.  A highly compressed frame.
BFS - Broadcast File System. Application data on a server can be sent to STB for application use
BHC - Bose, Chauduri, Hocquenghem. Error correction technique
BIST - Built in Self Test.
BITC - Burned In Time Code
BitTorrent - File sharing system using multiple systems (P2P lineage) to improve performance
Black Burst - used to synchronize video sources to the same point
Black Level - voltage level that constitutes black.  See IRE
BLC - Backlight Compensator. Opens up aperture in bright backlit situations to capture foreground.
Bleeding - Color from one objects leaks into surrounding areas to cause image distortion.
Block - Many compression methods divide the image into blocks, then compress the block's image.
Blocking - Establishing actor & camera positions before the shoot
BLOG - Weblog. An open diary on the Internet, sometimes contributed to by many, usually on a focused topic.
Bloom - Phosphors are overdriven causing adjacent pixels to light up.
blue laser - Sometimes called Blue-Violet LASER, used in Blu-Ray & HD-DVD. 405nm wavelength
Blue Screen - Blue background to make chromakeying easier. Can be green, but blue halo is less harsh.
Bluetooth - Short range wireless cable replacement. ~1 Mbps (actual is less), 10 or 100m range
Bluetooth HR - Next gen Bluetooth, may be 100 Mbps or 480 Mbps if it goes UWB route
Blu-rayHD optical disk using blue laser. 25/50/100/200 GByte. Uses BD-J (see HD DVD
BML - Broadcast Markup Language, for Japanese iTV within ARIB
bmp - Windows bit map file format
BNC - Bayonet Neill Concelman. Industrial coax connector used in some AV equipment
Bokeh - Quality of how out-of-focus objects look in limited depth of field shots.
BOM - Bill of Materials
Bounded Application - OCAP or MHP interactive application bound to a television program.
BPDG - Broadcast Protection Discussion Subgroup of CPTWG (Broadcast Flag
BPL - Broadband over Power LIne.  Can get as high as 200 Mbps.  See PLC, HomePlug
BPON - Broadband PON. ATM based. 622Mbps.
Bridge - Interfacing device between two different types of networks
Bridging - combining two amplifier channels together to make a more powerful channel
Broadcast Flag - Redistribution Control Indicator. Can restrict  distribution.
B-Roll - term for stock footage used for various needs. Captured at same time as A-Roll.
Brouter - combines functions of routers and bridges.
BRR - Bit Rate Reduction. Same as compression
BSMS - Bandwidth and Security Management System in CMTS
BTU - British Thermal Unit, a measure of energy (1 pound of water is raised 1 degree F)
BUD - Big Ugly Dish. See TVRO
Bug - Icon showing station name, etc., usually in lower right corner of video
Bump-Up/Down - Transferring video from lower to higher quality tape (up), or other way around (down)
Burned-in - Permanent SMPTE
/EBU timecodes on tape.
Burst - See Color Burst
Burst Error Second - any second of transmission containing 100 or more errors.
BVS - Broadband Video Service
B&W - Black & White

BW - bandwidth
BWF - Broadcast WAV File. Used to interchange audio between broadcasters.
























CA - Certificate Authority. Trusted entity for holding public key information
CA -
Conditional Access
Continental Automated Buildings Association.
Context Adaptive Binary Arithmetic (entropy) Coding for AVC (10% better than CAVLC)
- Inserted into box to gain access to conditional access channels (see POD, Plug and Play)
CableHome - CableLabs' try at defining how home networking should work (under their control)
CableLabs - Engineering entity directed by the MSOs for setting standards such as DOCSIS
Cable MOU - see Cable Plug and Play
Cable Plug and Play - agreement on how digital cable connects to TV without needing a STB
CableSCAN - software product that counts Nielsen household and demographic data for cable
Cactus Data Shield - an audio CD copy protection scheme
Cadence-based deinterlacer - Uses DSP to deinterlace DVD video. See flag-based deinterlace
CAL - Common Application Language. (CEA 721) With 1394, part of DTV interface
CAM - Conditional Access Module. Used in MultiCrypt
CAN - Controller Area Network. Automotive & industrial control network, made for reliability.
Candela - Fundamental unit of luminous intensity.
Candle - See Candela
Canoe - Cable project to unify aspects of advertising for national advertisers
Cantenna - A WiFi antenna for high gain & directionality. Gets name from cans in homemade types
Cardea - Microsoft's link encryption scheme (like TDCP) for Microsoft Media
Carrier - Main frequency used by radio that carries a modulated signal holding the info being transmitted
CARS - Community Antenna Relay Service. 12.75 GHz band for cable to transport TV signals.
CAS - Conditional Access System.
CASIE - Coalition for Advertising Supported Information and Entertainment
CAT5 - shielded twisted pair cable (4 pairs) used for Ethernet
Catadiatropic Lens - (Cat Lens) Telescopic lens using internal mirrors to reduce size.
CATV - Community Antenna TV, now simply called cable TV.
CAV - Constant Angular Velocity. Disk rotates at constant speed, outer tracks store less data. (CLV
CAVLC - Context Adaptive Variable Length Encoding for Baseline Profile (see CABAC
C-Band - 4 to 8 GHz band. 3.7 - 4.2GHz for TVRO
CBR - Constant Bit Rate - number of bits/second is steady, no matter the content it carries (see VBR
C-CAS - Cable Conditional Access System, used in Japan. Uses C-CAS smartcard.
CCD - Charged-Coupled Device, the sensor used in most cameras (see CMOS sensor
CCFL - Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube, traditional backlight for LCD panels
CCI - Copy Control Information. Contained within DRM schemes. Example: "Copy Once"
CCIR - International Radio Consultative Committee, now called ITU. Known for CCIR601/709 DTV std
CCITT - International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee, now ITU
- China Communications Standards Association
CD - Compact Disk.  CDR - recordable CD.  CDRW - rewriteable CD
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access. Spread spectrum codes assigned to senders to share link
CDMA 2000 - CDMA 3G. Phase 1 = 1xRTT. Phase 2 = 1xEVDO. Phase 3 = 1xEVDV.
CDN - Content Delivery Network.  Architecture & service for efficient sending of big files.
CDPD - Cellular Digital Packet Data. Old 19.2kbps data over unused analog cellular.
CE - Consumer Electronics (company)
CEA - Consumer Electronics Association. U.S. (& International) CE mfr lobbying and standards group
CE-ATA - Consumer Electronics ATA. For small form factor devices
CEC - Consumer Electronics Control. HDMI protocol for passing control signals between devices
CEDIA - Custom Electronic Design & Installation Assoc. - aimed mostly at big home theater jobs

Combined Exhibition of Advanced Technologies, a CES type show in Japan
Center for Office and Information Technology, a CES/Comdex type show in Germany
CELF - CE Linux Forum. 
CE Linux - move to open std Linux
OS by CE mfrs to save costs and development time.  See CELF
CEMA - Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association - part of CEA
CERC - Consumer Electronics Retailers Coalition. Public policy trade assocation
Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire. WWW started here, and is still watched over.
CF - Compact Flash memory card, uses ATA interface to look like a disk.
CES - Consumer Electronics Show - put on by CEA each January.  Games split out to E3
CES - Color Encoding Specification. Complete method for describing color, including data formats.
CG - Character Generator. Creates titles, etc., on video.
CGA - Color Graphics Adaptor. Original 200x300 resolution, sometimes used by simple devices
CGI - Computer Generated Imagery
CGMS-A - Copy Generation Management System for Analog
Channel Bonding - linking 4 or more 6 MHz cable channels for higher bandwidth (DOCSIS3
Channel Leakage - Audio from one channel that leaks into another channel.
Chapter Stop - Metadata used to point to segments in a DVD
CHI - Card (CableCARD) Host Interface
CHILA - CableCARD Host Interface License Agreement (formerly PHILA) for OpenCable
Chip - Part of a symbol in a spread spectrum signal. Or, An integrated circuit.
Chroma Crawl - Moving color artifacts in the video image

Chromakey - Removes portions of the image matching a specified color. See Blue Screen.

Chromatic Aberration - Different colors have different focal lengths in the lens, causing color fringes
Chrominance - color information
cHTML - Compact HTML for small devices. Being replaced by xHTML
Chunking - breaking HTML into smaller "chunks", useful for interactive situations (DLNA required)
Churn - percent of lost and new subscribers
CI - Common Interface. Slot for accepting CAM cards in DVB systems.
CIE - Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (illumination), created chromaticity diagram
CIELAB - CIE Color space. L = Luminance. A = red/green (0=green). B = Yellow/Blue (0=blue)
CIELUV - CIE Color space. Maps to YUV
CIF - Common Interchange Format. 352x240 or 352x288 (1/4 NTSC or PAL).
Cinemascope - 2.35:1 aspect ratio image derived via 2:1 anamorphic lens.
CineLink -
a T.I. encryption technology used encrypt the link between the cinema server & projector
CinePak - A video codec for QuickTime
CIRC - Cross Interleaved Read-Solomon Code, error correction for CDs
Circle Surround - Alternative surround sound system w/improved rear speaker separation
CIT - Constrained Image Trigger.  Part of CCI
Class A - Audio amplifier where current is always flowing.

Class AB
- Class B w/Class A at push-pull transition point to reduce crossover distortion. Most common
Class B - Audio amplifier that only flows current through either the push or pull transistor at a time.
Class D - Push or pull transistor turns full on, uses PWM and low pass filter. Promises efficiency.
CLDC - Connected Limited Device Configuration. J2ME core library.
CLEC - Competitive LEC. A new kid on the block phone company.  See ILEC
Client - Device that connects to network & receives services, such as web pages, usually from a server
Cliplink - Sony DVCAM marking of in/out points to make video editing easier.
Clipping - When audio signal exceeds amplifier's limits - smooth sounds clip to form edgy sounds.
CLV - Constant Linear Velocity. Disk rotation varies. Packs more bits on disk. See CAV
CMOS - Complementary MOS. Low power semiconductor used in most digital circuits today.
CMOS sensor - image sensor sometimes used in camera phones, etc.  Sometimes noisier. See CCD
CMS - Content Management system, handles all show content in a digital cinema
CMTS - Cable Modem Termination System. System in cable headend for Internet support
CMTS-NSI - CMTS Network Side Interface. Interfaces CMTS to equipment on the network side
CMYK - Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black - as in color printers
C/N - Carrier to Noise ratio
CO - Central Office. Phones DSLAMs often sit there, so DSL customers care how far away it is.
Coax or Coaxial - Cable with center conductor shielded by at least 1 ground to reduce electrical noise
Co-channel interference - Interference between to stations using the same frequencies
Codec - Compressor/Decompressor, Example: MPEG codec. Coder/Decoder, Example: phone codec
CODFM - Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Modulation used by DVB. (See 8VSB
Coloration - Imperfections in the audio that makes it sound unnatural.
Color Balance - Color settings. Neutral color balance is as captured.
Color Burst - Video reference signal for hues
Color Correction - Modifying color balance to adjust for desired lighting effect.
Color Depth - How many shades of a color, often expressed in bits. 8 bits = 256. 10 = 1024. 12 = 4096
Color Gamut - See Color Space
Colorimeter - Measures color, broken down into its three component parts.
Colorimetry - The science of color
Color Space - Range of colors, specified within parameters like CMYK, RGB, YUV, HSL, YCbCr, etc.
Colorstripe - Macromedia technique to make DVDs difficult to copy from its analog output.
Color Temperature - Defines white. Measured in Kelvin. Higher numbers mean bluer.
Color Timing - adjusting color tones in postproduction, originally on a Hazeltine, now in DI
Color Wheel - Rotates RGB filters so a single display engine (e.g. DLP) can display all colors.
Comb Filter - Used in NTSC sets to separate color from B&W signal for sharper images
Combing - Fast objects produce "comb patterns" when interlacing can't keep up with movements.
Comdex - Computer distributors expo that has lost its shine, and is not defunct
Comet Tail - A smear that trails moving objects in certain video conditions.
Companding - Compressing and then expanding audio to get better dynamic range
Component Video - YPbPr , separate cables form components of the video signal (see RGB or RGBHV
Composite Video - complete video signal is combined into one cable (NTSC format)
Compositing - combining several picture elements into one
Conditional Access - uses Motorola or Scientific Atlanta digital cable encryption scheme
Confetti - Unwanted color dots on screen caused by video errors and noise
Conform - preparing the cinema material for viewing during the postproduction phase.
Constrained Image - Reduces HDTV image to 540x960 before sending to analog outputs
Contrast - Ratio of brightest & darkest part of image. Specs often ignore ambient light's effect on black
Control-L - control protocol for older 8mm and VHS equipment - also called LANC
Convergence - Getting the RGB beams to align.
Convergence - Industries & technologies blending to form new market. Can be a Jackolope.
Copyright Directive 2001/29/EC - similar to U.S. DCMA
Coral Consortium - attempt at DRM interoperability. Initial members missing a few key companies.
Coring Out - Removing noise in analog video by converting it to digital, then back to analog
Corona - Microsoft's code name for WM9
CP - Copy Protection
CPE - Customer Premises Equipment.  Industry term for things like a STB
CPM - Cost Per Thousand impressions of an ad, often print or web.

- Cost Per (TV Rating) Point of an add (e.g. a $10K ad for a 10 point show has a $1K CPP)
CPPM - Copy Protection for Pre-recorded Media (4C
CPRM - Copy Protection for Recordable Media (4C
CPSA - Content Protection System Architecture (4C
CPTWG - Copy Protection Technical Working Group, MPAA & industry working out copy protection
CPU - Central Processing Unit of a computer system.
CPU - Cost Per Unit, amount charged for each ad appearance
CPXe - Kodak initiated protocol for finding photo services via a UDDI directory
Crab - Camera mount with flexibility to move in any direction

Crabbing - Moving a camera sideways along an arch.
Crawl - Credits or graphics moving slowly across the screen
CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check. Extra bits must match CRC code if data is good.

Crossover - Separate audio into high & low frequencies (or more) to help tweeter, mid-range & woofers
CRT - Cathode Ray Tube
CSA - Common Scrambling Algorithim. ESTI standard CA system for DVB
CSI - Cable System Information, processed by the CableCard
CSMA/CD - Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. Lets multiple devices share network.
CSO - Composite 2nd Order Beat. Peak average distortion due to 2nd order non-linearity in cable equip.
CSS - Content Scrambling System lic. by DVD CAA. DeCSS code broke the system.
CSTN - Color STN
CSU/DSU - Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit. Terminal for telecom data transmissions.
CTAM - Cable & Telecommunications Association for Marketing
CTB - Carrier Triple Beat. 3 carriers, A+B-C mix to create 3rd order distortion in main carrier (cable)
CTIA - Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Assoc. Mobile phones group.
CTO - Compsite Triple Beat.  Third order non-linearity, see CSO
CVCT - Cable Virtual Channel Table. Digital cable's term for EPG
CVD - China Video Disc. Old contender for VCD

CW - Control Word, essentially a key in an encryption or scrambling system.

- Carrier Wave.  Main frequency component in an RF signal
Cyclorama - Curved seamless backgound

























D1 - Professional digital tape using component video format. Also full video resolution (NTSC/PAL)
- German "bus" (network) for automotive multimedia applications (Mercedes)
- 1/2 inch cassette tape format for digital composite video recording
- Uses D3 cassette, but records digital component video.
- 19mm tape format for recording uncompressed HDTV
D7 - DVDPRO tape format

- Medium grade professional DV tape (JVC). (same as Digital-S). D9 HD adds HD
D10 - see MPEG IMX tape format

- HDCam tape format
D12 - DVCPRO HD or 100 tape format

- Digital Audio Broadcast
DAC - Digital to Analog Converter, simple bits in, analog out (codec agnostic)
DAM - Digital Asset Management (see MAM, DMM
D'Appolito: Vertically symmetrical driver array. Tweeter between 2 woofers for vertically symm. sound
DAR - Digital Audio Receiver.
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Started the Internet long ago
DASE - DTV Application Software Environment.  Precursor (w/OCAP) to
- Digital Audio Tape (usually using a rotating head, therefore R-DAT) for 48KHz sampled audio
datacine - digitizing film into files
DataPlay - Small (1") optical disk format. defunct
DAVIC - Digital Audio Video Council (Europe). Created iTV proposed stds. Supported TV Anytime
Day and Date - movie is released worldwide on same day
dB - Decibel, logarithmic gain or loss of signal power . 3dB = 2x power, 6dB = 2x voltage
dBm - Audio level based on a milliwatt of power.
DB-25 - A cable created for printers, but sometimes used to carry six audio line level signals.
DBS - Direct Broadcast Satellite (e.g. EchoStar).  Europe calls it DTH
DC - digital cinema
DC - direct current
DC28 - SMPTE digital cinema standards - now 21DC
DC28 - SMPTE std working on Digital Cinema
DCAS - Downloadable CAS. Uses downloadable keys instead of physical device (i.e. CableCARD
DCC - Digital Compact Cassette. Audio recorded digitally onto a tape cassette.
DCDi - Popular Faroudja (Genesis) video processor used to clean up the video image

- Digital Cinema Distribution Master.
DCF - Distributed Coordination Function. Network polling by MAC to see if it's OK to transmit
DC HID - Direct Current HID
DCI - Digital Cinema Initiatives. Studios & vendors working on digital cinema stds. Working w/DC28
D-Cinema - Digital Cinema
DCMA - Digital Millennium Copyright Act.  Europe equivalent is Copyright Directive 2001/29/EC
DCMI - Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, for interoperable online metadata standards (postproduction)
DCPG - Digital Cinema Provider's Group. Promotes the business of Digital Cinema
DCR - Digital Cable Ready. Accepts CableCARD for one-way MSO services. (iDCR
DCT - Discrete Cosine Transform, usually compresses 8x8 pixel blocks w/discrete Fourier method
DDCE - Dolby Digital Consumer Encode. Dolby audio encoding consumers can do (e.g. DVD recorders)
DDR - Double Data Rate SDRAM. Data is transferred on the rising and falling edge of the clock signal.
DDWG - Digital Display Working Group
Decibel - Unit of loudness. 1 decibel difference is barely perceived.
DeCSS - Broke DVD CSS in 1999 when a Linux coder posted DeCSS on Internet.
DECT - Digital Enhanced Cordless Communications. European cordless standard.
Deep Color - Use of more than 8 bits/color - eg.  10, 12, 14 or 16. For HDMI, requires version 1.3b
Deep Fiber - Cable HFC node is closer to homes, with ~100/node (normally 500). Higher BW results.
Deinterlacing - Converts interlaced video into progressive video via various techniques.
De-mosaic - approximates true color at each pixel based on RGB info at & near that pixel. See mosaic
DENi - Digital Entertainment Network initiative, aimed at AV Networking (probably overtaken by DHWG
Depth Grading - managing the apparent depth of objects in a 3D movie
Depth of Field - Range of distances from camera that are kept in focus.
DES - Digital Encryption Standard. Common 1 key document encryption method.  Not a public key type.
DES-CBC - DES Cipher Block Chaining. 64 bit key. Used in cable systems.
DFAST - Dynamic Feedback Arrangement Scrambling Technique. CHILA subset for CE devices.
DFP - Digital Flat Panel connector.  Evolved into DVI
DFT - Discrete Fourier Transform. Uses power of 2 Sin & Cosine values for faster computation.
DGA - Director's Guild of America.
DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.  Assigns IP address automatically.
DHSG - Data Hiding Sub-Group (CPTWG), see ARDG
DHWG - Digital Home Working Group, CE & PC consortium for device-device communication (now DLNA
DI - Digital Intermediate. Postproduction step in film or digital cinema, adjusting color, etc.
DiBEG - Digital Broadcasting Experts Group. Japanese. Created ISDB
Dichronic Prism - Splits image into three RGB components
DiffServ - Differentiated Services. Ethernet devices self-manage QoS by type of service used. (IntServ
DIGDIA - Helps companies find and analyze growth opportunities in the digital entertainment value chain.

- Motorola's CA system
Digital Certificate - CA issued encrypted metadata package for public key systems.
Digital-8 - Sony digital video tape format, uses Mini-DV type encoding on 8mm analog tape mechanics
Digital Betacam - Considered highest grade SDTV
DV tape format (Sony)
Digital Cinema - Movie theater with digital distribution, storage and projection of movies.
Digital-S - See D9
Digital Cable Ready -
complies w/digital cable "plug & play", w/ a POD, digital cable connects directly
Digital Home - Depends who you ask. Entertainment, home automation, telematics, mobility, healthcare.
Digital Living - Same as Digital Home, but less common a term.
Digital Living Network Alliance - See DLNA
Digital Media - Media cards, optical discs, digital tape; digital video, photos, music.
Digital Simulcast - Analog cable channels also sent digitally to enable all digital STB and switchover.
Digital Zoom - uses smaller area of image sensor to give the appearance of zooming in.
Diffie-Hellman - encryption method for generating shared secret key from private & public keys
Diffuser - Deflects sound to spread over wider spread, without which sound may be aimed at one spot

D-ILA - Direct Drive Image Light Amplifier, JVC's version of LCOS
DIN - Deutsches Insitut fr Normung. A set of connector standards.
Deutsche Industrie Norm. Film sensitivity, like ASA
Direct Sequence - Digital sequence used to encode RF modulation to create spread spectrum
Direct View - A display where you view the picture elements directly, as opposed to projected displays
Discovery - Reading a device's nature & capabilities. Example: seeing that it can display MPEG2

Disk Mirroring - see

Disk Striping - see RAID 0
DisplayPort - VESA PC (and CE) display interface.  Handles up to 4K
resol., link encryption, audio
Dither - Blend colors at edges to smooth image and avoid jaggies
Diversity Antenna - Multiple antenna arrangement to reduce Raleigh fading in wireless links.
DivX - Video codec w/underground twist.
DIVX - defunct Circuit City DVD protection scheme.
DivX;-) - Original hack of Microsoft's WMV, took name from DIVX, and evolved into DivX.
DKMS - Data and Key Management system in a TMS

DLNA - Digital Living Network Alliance.  Formerly DHWG. AV networking stds. CE & PC industry. see HANA

DLP - Digital Light Processor, Texas Instruments' DMD technology used in digital projectors
DLT - Digital Linear Tape
DMA - Designated Market Area (Nielson term). Services tend to talk about how many DMAs they serve.
DMA - Direct Memory Access (PC disk term). Provides faster data transfers.

- Digital Media Adaptor. Interfaces digital AV (usually from a PC) to legacy AV equipment
- DSD Modular Audio Processing. Sony signal processing module
DMB - Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (Korea). Broadcasting digital TV steams to mobile phones.
DMD - Digital Multilayer Disk. Uses red laser and up to 6 layer DVD media for 15 to eventually 60 GB.
DMD - Digital Micromirror Device, the actual chip used in DLP
DMM - Digital Media Management (see DAM, MAM
DMP - Digital Media Project. New group trying to sort out DRM issues.
DMT - Discrete Multitone Technology. Picked by VDSL2
DMZ - Demilitarized zone. A network setup outside the firewall giving limited access to company content.
DNG - Digital ENG
DNR - Dynamic Noise Reduction. Reduces high frequency noise. Does not require pre-processing
DNS - Domain Name Server. Translates URLs into IP addresses
DNxHD - Avid's compression scheme for editing HD material using SD rates.
DOCSIS 1.1 - Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (cable modems). 10Mbps
DOCSIS 2.0 - Increases bandwidth up to 40Mbps down/30Mbps up.
DOCSIS 3.0 - Proposed to increase bandwidth up to 200Mbps down/100Mbps up.
B or C - Audio encoding technique for increasing fidelity with less noise and multi-channel sound
Dolby Digital - Audio encoding for 5  channel sound (plus subwoofer) for 5.1 audio (see DTS, THX
Dolby Digital Plus
- E-AC-3. A more efficient version of Dolby Digital.
Dolby EX - 6.1 (can be 7.1) extension of Dolby Digital
Dolby ProLogic - 4 channel analog audio scheme. ProLogic II improves 2-channel non-encoded audio.
Dot Crawl - Video artifact that looks like the name implies
Dot Pitch -
The distance between pixels of the same color in a display.
Down Resolution -
(Down Rez) Reducing HD content to SDTV levels if sent to analog outputs (constrained).
Downstream -
Cable headend to CPE. Satellite transmission to dish.
- Director of Photography (movie term)
- Dots per inch (used in scanners and printers)
DPI - Digital Program Insertion. Digitally inserting ads, etc., into a television program stream.
DPOF - Direct Print Order Format metadata for specifying how a photo should be rendered (printed)
DPTV - Direct Projection (View) TV.  Also, Digital Packet TV.
DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory. Common memory used in PCs, etc. Not nonvolatile.
DRM - Digital Rights Management.  Keeping content rights managed and avoiding pirates.
DS-1 - Digital Service level 1 from your telco. 1.544Mbps U.S./2.048Mbps elsewhere (T1
DS-3 - Digital Service level 3 from your telco. 44.736Mbps. (OC-1, T3
DSCP - Differential Services Codepoint. Tags network packets by policy (not priority)
DSD - Direct Stream Digital - Sony/Philip term for 1-bit Amplifier scheme
DSDL - Double Sided Dual Layer DVD
DSG - DOCSIS Set-top Gateway. Advanced STB using DOCSIS for digital EPG, services & content
DSL - Digital Subscriber Line, high speed data over twisted pair phone lines
DSLAM - Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer, links many DSL lines to an ATM line.
DSM - Digital Source Master
DSM-CC - Digital Storage Media Command & Control. Protocols for MPEG1
/2 streams. iTV related.
DSP - Digital Signal Processing, method used by codecs, etc. using DFT
DSS - Digital Satellite Service.
DSSS - Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. Uses keyed phase modulation.
DSTB - Digital STB
D-Sub - D-Subminiature. "D" shaped outer shell around pins (e.g. VESA 15 pins, RS-232 9 pins).
DS-UWB - Direct Sequence
UWB, used by UWB Forum. Uses pulse-based modulation.
DTA - Digital to Analog Converter, a simple STB with basic  cable service
DTCP - Digital Transmission Copy Protection. Encrypted 1394 link that protects content.(DTLA, DTVLink
DTCP/IP - DTCP encryption on Ethernet, TTL = 3 to prevent content over Internet, plus round trip < 7ms
DTH - Direct to Home standard, commonly known as DBS
D-Theater - 1080i content recorded on D-VHS
DTLA - Digital Transmission Licensing Administrator. Administration for DTCP
DTMF - Dual Tone Multi-Frequency. Touch tone dialing system. Broadcast signal for ad insertion.
DTS - Digital Theater Systems. Competing (Home) Theater sound format (see THX, Dolby
- DTS Extended Surround for 6.1 audio
DTS Neo:6
- converts 2 channel sound to 5 or 6 channels; similar to Dolby ProLogic2
- Digital Terrestrial Transmission.  Broadcast DTV over UHF. European term.
DTV - Digital Television (not necessarily HDTV
DTVCC - DTV Closed Captioning
DTVIA - DTV Industry Alliance of China, aimed at analog to digital transition
DTVLink - CEA consumer term for a 1394 (EIA775) with DTCP connection for HDTV video

DualDisk -
DVD on one side, digital audio (not std. CD due to different layer depth) on other side
Dublin Core
- see DCMI
Duo - Small sized Memory Stick, can fit into a Memory Stick slot with an adapter
Dutch Angle - Tilting camera slightly to make subject appear to run up or down hill.
DV - Digital Video.  Also: big cousin (L-size) to Mini-DV tape (S-size)
DV-AVI - Digital Video - Audio/Video Interleave. See DV-AVI
DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting, an open industry std group for DTV and data broadcasting
DVB-ASI - 270 Mbps MPEG2 traditional signal an MSO
/IPTV may use (the other is QAM)
DVB-C - DVB Cable.
DVB-CA - DVB Conditional Access system
DVB-CI - DVB Common Interface for accessing scrambled data.
DVB-CSA - DVB Common Scrambling Algorithm
DVB-H - DVB  Handheld    .
DVB-J - DVB Java, part of MHP and OCAP
DVB-S - DVB Satellite.
DVB-S2 - DVB Satellite, but improved to allow AVC or VC1
DVB-SI - DVB Service Information. Index that binds all ES and TS together.
DVB-T - DVB Terrestrial.
DVB-MPEG - Specifies 11 SDTV
MPEG2 formats for DVB
DVC - Digital Video Cassette.
DVCAM - Low end professional DV tape (Sony). Related to DVCPRO 25 & Mini-DV
DVCPRO 25 - Low end professional DV tape (Panasonic). 4:1:1, 25 Mbps, 184 min.(DVCAM & Mini-DV)
DVCPRO 50 - Medium grade professional DV tape. 4:2:2, 50 Mbps, 92 min. (DVCPRO 50 P, 4:2:0
DVCPRO HD - HD grade professional DV tape. 100 Mbps, 46 min. (DVCPRO 100)
D-VCR - Digital video recording on VHS tape. (D-VHS
DVD - Digital Versatile (Video) Disk.  Holds 4.7GB or ~8.5GB (dual layer).  Uses red laser.
DVD holds about 15.9 GB
DVD6C - Licensing agency for DVD-RAM, DVD-R, DVD-Audio, DVD-Video.
DVD-9 - Dual layer DVD
DVD-A - DVD Audio, for 6 channel sound.  Looks to be the winner.
DVD CCA - DVD Copy Control Assoc.  Licenses CSS and RPC
DVDDual - Similar to DVDPlus with some modifications on content
DVD Forum - Tries to set DVD standards.
DVD-Multi - A try by the DVD Forum at making DVD+R look like odd disk out
DVDPlus - Adds a CD layer to DVD
DVDR - DVD Recorder
DVD-RAM - Recordable DVD (more popular in Japan) pushed mostly by Matsushita (Panasonic)
DVD+R/RW - Recordable DVD using a registration technique more friendly for data storage
DVD-R/RW - Recordable DVD that is also popular.  Now there are DVD drives for both + and - media
DVD-VR - DVD Video Recording. Formatted to allow editing of video on DVD.
DVE - Digital Video Effects processor
D-VHS - HD VHS that records D-Theater content. Compatibility issues and DVD stand in the way.
DVI - Digital Video Interface, a parallel digital link to displays (created by DDWG
DVI-A - DVI that can carry only analog signals
DVI-D - DVI that can carry digital signals
DVI-I - DVI that can carry digital or analog
DVD On Demand - VOD service that behaves like viewer is interacting with a DVD player
DVR - Digital Video Recorder (also called PVR), e.g. TiVo
DVS - Digital Video Subcommittee. (SCTE
DVS 629 - DVS std. specifies mechanics of interactive cable ads.
DWDM - Dense WDM. Optical communications with 400+ Gb/s.
DWT - Discrete Wavelet Transform. Used in JPEG 2000
Dylan - (product name) Media storage base on RAID 3 using for NLE











E3 - Electronic Entertainment Expo, games
E911 - Requirement that mobile phones be able to transmit number and location for 911 calls
eAAC+ - High efficiency Advanced Audio Codec. MPEG std., uses AAC plus spectral bandwidth replication
E-AC-3 - Extented AC-3 Audio, commercially known as Dolby Digital Plus.
EAS - Emergency Alert System
Easter Egg - Hidden content on DVDs
EBCOT - Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation. Used in JPEG 2000
EBI - ETV Binary Interchange common resource format used in EBIF
EBIF - ETV Binary Interchange Format. Used on legacy STB where OCAP is too big
EBIF XML representation
EBU - European Broadcasting Union, working on stds - somewhat similar to SMPTE
ECC - Error Correction Code. Several types exist, such as Reed-Solomon
EC Camera - Electronic Cinematography Camera. Camera tries to emulate film (e.g. 24 fps
E-Cinema - Form of Digital Cinema, but aimed at exhibiting ODS
ECM - Entitlement Control Message. Conditional Access control words & scrambling parameters. (EMM
ECMA - European Computer Manufacturers Association
-Script - version of Java Script adopted by the ECMA.
EDCA - Enhanced Distributed Channel Access for QoS (prioritized DCF). Gives EDCA traffic priority
EDCF - European Digital Cinema Forum
EDGE - Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution. Moderately high (384 kbps) Mobile data
EDID - Extended Display ID Data. Lets monitor and source communicate display mode settings (HDMI
Edit Master - End results of the edit.
EDL - Edit Decision List. Format for exchanging video between production tools
EDO DRAM - Extended Data Out DRAM. Starts fetching next block of memory ahead to speed access.
EDTV - Enhanced Definition TV. 480p - similar to progressive DVD quality
EFF - Electronic Frontier Foundation. Advocate organization for Fair Use.
EFP - Electronic Field Production. Taping on location with portable equipment.
EIA - Electronic Industry Association
EIA775A - EIA DTV link over 1394 specification (1394 link between the STB and DTV
EIA861A/B - Specifies how a DTV interfaces via DVI
EIAJ - EIA Japan
EIT - Event Information Table. Part of PSIP. Tells where the components of the program are.
EL - Elevation
ELS - Extreme Long Shot
Embedded System - Microprocessor, firmware & peripherals embedded inside a device.
EMI - Electromagnetic Interference. See RFI
EMI - Encryption Mode Indicator for CableCARD. Tells POD if re-scrambling to host in needed.
EMM - Entitlement Message Management. Specifies CA authorization level of device (ECM
eMTA - embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter.  DOCSIS enabled VoIP to legacy phone set device.
ENAV - Enhanced Navigation for DVDs, adding URL links to the Internet
ENG - Electronic News Gathering. Often live capture on portable equipment w/microwave link.
ENG-Style Lens - ENG favored servo motor controlled zoom lens
EPC - Electronic Product Code (RFID). Includes 96 bit code. Managed by EPCglobal
EPC-IS - EPC Information Service. Each instance exposes data contained in the RFID tag.

EPC-DS - EPC Discovery Service. Helps to determine which EPC-IS instances may be relevant. (ONS)

EPG - Electronic Program Guide. Example: TV Guide or Tribune.  See IPG
EPM - Enhanced Packet Mode. For transmitting video to mobile devices (alternative to DVB-H
EPN - Encryption Plus Non-assertion. Content must be kept encrypted & pass only to 5C devices.
EPON - Ethernet
PON. IEEE802.3ah
EPRML - Extended PRML.  Refined version squeezes out 20% or more efficiency.
Erlang - Old telco term - one hour of traffic on a phone line.
ERM - Edge (QAM) Resource Manager
ES - Elementary Stream. Serialized form of MPEG video and audio.  Composed of PES packets.
eSATA - external SATA
ESC - Electronic Systems Contractor. Designs & installs home theaters, home automation, etc.
ESD - Electro-static discharge. Unprotected electronics can be zapped and fail.
ESS - Electronic Still Store. Captures a full video frame.
EST - Electronic Systems Technician. Works with ESC during installation.
ETC - Entertainment Technology Center. Helps research into Entertainment/Technology topics
Etendue - Optical Throughput, or ability to transmit light through system. Used in projector designs.
Ethernet - Common name for today's computer networking.  See 802.3
ETP - Electronic Test Pattern
ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute
ETSI Compression - Symetrical infraframe compression used for satellite links.
ETV - Enhanced TV. A form of iTV, Also, describes interim platform for OCAP (see EBIF)
Euroconnector - see SCART
EVC - Enhanced Video Connector - Evolved into P&D
EVD - Enhanced Versatile Disc. Chinese HD optical disc using red laser DVD (4.7GB) (see HDV, HVD
EvDO - Evolution Data Only. Mobile wireless data transport, first offered by Sprint
EvDV - Evolution Data & Voice. Related to EvDO
E-VSB - Zenith's Enhanced VSB
Exif - Digital camera std for specifying attributes of a photo, camera, conditions, etc.
EX-D - DVD you can watch for 48 hours before turning dark and unusable; but avoids rental returns.
ExpressCard - smaller format version of PCMCIA. Comes in 54mm and 34mm wide sizes.


FACT - Federation Against Copyright Theft. Anti video piracy group in the U.K.
Fair Use - Principal allowing copyright material usage for certain purposes (e.g. copy a TV show)
FAT - Forward Application Transport channel. Cable's 27 or 36Mbps in-band headend to CPE channel.
FAT - File Allocation Table. Older Microsoft disk organization method.

- Federal Communications Commission (U.S. Govt.)
FDC - Forward Data Channel. MSO headend to CPE for EMM, msgs, netwk mgmt, etc. OOB 70 - 120 MHz.
FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interface. 100Mbps over fiber.
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access. Frequency channels are assigned to senders.
FEC - Forward Error Correction. Send extra bits so receiver can correct some transmission errors
FED - Field Emission Display. CRT array-based flat screen. High & Low voltage types. Difficult mfg.
FeRAM - Ferroelectric RAM. Non-volatile memory using polarized ferroelectric thin film memory element
FFT - Fast Fourier Transform.  See DFT
FHSS - Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. Hides signal by constantly shifting a keyed frequency.
Field - A display paints one field each pass.  Progressive uses 1 pass/frame, Interlaced needs 2 passes
Fill Factor - % of active optical area in camera sensor or display engine. Higher is better.

Film Chain - see telecine
FIPS 140-3 -
Federal Information Processing Standards. Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules
Firewall - Protections against unwanted intrusion or access to a LAN. Many levels exist.
Firewire - (Apple term) same as IEEE1394
Fixed Pixel - Most any non-CRT type digital display (has a fixed number of pixels)
FLAC - Free Lossless Audio Codec. Unlike MP3, nothing gets lost in the compression process
Flag-reading deinterlacer - Uses picture structure flags to deinterlace
DVD video. See Cadence.
Flash - Type of non-volatile memory commonly used in memory cards. Uses floating gate cells
Flashpix - Old picture format that stored multiple resolutions together. Started in HP, later Kodak joined
flat - 1:1.85 aspect ratio
FLM - Focal Length Multiplier. Diagonal of 35mm film (43.3mm)/diagonal of sensor in a digital camera
FLM - Facilities List Message. List of approved equipment in a digital cinema theater
FM - Frequency Modulation
FMC - Fixed Mobile Communications, used fixed (e.g. WiFi) & mobile (e.g. GSM) for mobile phone link
Focal Length - Distance between lens' center and CCD or CMOS sensor.
FOD - Free on Demand TV service
Foot Candle - (non-metric) Lumens/square foot = 1.764 Lux
Foot-Lambert - Brightness measurement based on light reflected back from a 1 foot square screen.
Foveon - made a CMOS sensor where R, G & B sensors sit "on top" of each other. See mosaic
FourCC - Four character code in AVI that tells which codec is being used.
Fourier - Represents signals with Sin & Cosine functions. DSPs usually use DFT
FP - Front Projection (TV)
FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array. An IC that can be "wired" by the vendor for a specific application
FPM DRAM - Fast Page Mode DRAM. Reduces row address cycles to speed memory (older technique)

fps - Frames per second
FPTV - Front Projection TV
Frame - one complete picture in a video stream
Framestore Synchronizer - Holds complete frame to synchronize two video signals.
FRU - Field Replaceable Unit
F-Stop - Equals Focal Length
/Aperture (e.g. 50mm focal length/18mm aperture = 2.8)
FTA - Free to Air. Usually broadcast TV that you don't pay directly for
FTTB - Fiber to the Building (sometimes "Basement")
FTTC - Fiber to the Curb. One fiber services a dozen homes, linked via an ONU
FTTH - Fiber to the home. (In contrast to HFC
FTTN - Fiber to the Neighborhood
FTTP - Fiber to the Premises
Full Mode Lock - Behavior of some widescreen displays to show everything in widescreen mode.
Full Motion Video - Generally 25 or 30 fps video.
Fuzzy Logic - As my professor, Dr. Lotfi Zadeh said, "without fuzzy logic you'd never parallel park a car"
FVD - Forward Versatile Disc.  ITRI red laser 6/11GB DVD, FVD-1 = 5.4Gb @ 720p, FVD-2=6GB @ 1080i
F/X - Audio or Video special effects.





G2B - (G2BB) Go2Broadband. CableLabs program to work with vendors to attract new customers
Gaffer -
Lighting guy
- Relationship between input signal & output brightness. 1 = linear, otherwise non-linear.
Gamma Correction -
Add detail in shadow or bright areas by adjusting gamma's curve.
- Range of colors found in an image or a subset within a color space
Gate Wave - jitter in the movie image from film's imprecise alignment in projector during each frame

- Usually a router or STB that connects home devices to an outside (Internet) service
- See RGB
GCd - Giga-Candela

- Graphics DDR. Special high speed memory optimized for graphics
Globally Executable MHP.  An iTV standard designed to extend MHP to non-DVB platforms
GEM - Generic encapsulated method. Telco framing of both Ethernet & TDM traffic.
Genlock - synchronizing multiple video - ITU effort towards a unified PLC/Coax/Phone line Ethernet communications standard
Ghosting - Differences in analog TV broadcast paths cause weak secondary images
GHz - Giga
GIF - Graphic Interface Format, Compuserve originates 8-bit color image format
Giga - 1,000,000,000 decimal, or 2 to the 30th power binary (1,073,741,824).
GIS - Geographic Information System. Database of locations, terrain, addresses, etc. for maps

GLV - Grating Light Valve, an alternative MEMS display technique
Gabo - Shooting a scene through a hole, such as to make it look like it is through a keyhole.
GoD - Games on Demand (coined by Parks Assoc.)
GOP - Group of Pictures, collection of I, B and P frames in an MPEG2 stream.
GPON - Gigabit PON. 2.5Gbps.
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service. GSM
2.5G w/packet data, w/about 25 kbps (>110kbs in theory)
GPS - Global Positioning System
Grand Slam - Like the Triple Play, but adds mobile services
Graphic Equalizer - Sliding bar controls that adjust audio frequency band gain to taste or accuracy
Gray Card - Reflects 17.5% of the light. Used to measure general lighting conditions.

- Cable term. Adding/dropping and shaping programming to fit local needs & bandwidth
GRP - Gross Rating Points. % of target audience exposed to an ad x number of times it ran
gruvi - Sandisk micro-SD flash card format for prerecorded music
GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications. European cellular phone standard
GSS - Global Security System. Single login gives access to multiple services.
GUI - Graphical User Interface (e.g. Microsoft Windows)
Gyro Head - Camera mount with gyroscope to stabilize movement


H.222 - MPEG2
H.263 - Low bit rate video compression, sometimes used in phones and streaming

H.26L, H.264
- Advanced variant of MPEG4, uses Integer Transform instead of DCT
H.323 - Standards for voice, video & data VoIP.

- Defines video conferencing over analog phones.
H.320 - Video conferencing using 64kbps. Aimed at ISDN, etc. CIF or QCIF resolution.
Half Gain - Angle from zero degree viewing access where screen's performance drops in half.
Halo - Unwanted reflected light from Blue/Green screen on foreground subject
HANA - HD AV Network Alliance. Aiming to certify 1394 devices, content & services for HD. see DLNA
- Home Automation and Networking Association (merged into CEA)
Hanging Dots - Like Dot Crawl, but more stationary.  Seen between color borders.
HAVi - Home AV Interoperability. 1394-based protocol for AV communications (no longer active)
Hazeltine - original machine used to adjust color timing in film for movies
HCCA - Hybrid Controlled Channel Access. Polls nodes to allocate bw for HCCA nodes for QoS
HD - High Definition
HDCAM - HD grade professional DV tape
HDCD - High Definition Compatible Digital. Uses 20 bits to encode audio intended for DVD-A
HDCP - High-bandwidth Digital Copy Protection, encrypted uncompressed DVI for displays (EIA861a)
HDD - Hard Disk Drive
HD D5 - D5
VTR for HD recording.
HD DVD - Toshiba/NEC HD DVD blue laser format, ~15/30 GB. Competes w/Blu-Ray. More DVD compatible. Uses HDi
HD-DVD-RAM - Rewriteable version HD-DVD, 20GB single layer / 32GB dual layer.
HD-DVD-ROM - Read Only version HD-DVD, 15GB single layer / 30GB dual layer.
HDi - interactive HD used on HD DVD for interactive features.  Originally called iHD.
HDLC - High-Level Data Link Control. Provides Flow Control & complete modem packet transmission.
HDMI - High Definition Multimedia Interface, extends HDCP with audio, etc.
HDMI 1.3 - adds the ability to handle 1080p, and adds a clip so the connector won't easily fall off.
HDML - Handheld Device Markup Language. A proprietary and earlier form of WAP
HD-PLC - Panasonic invented Ethernet over home power line comm., now working on
HD-SDI - HD- SDI: For sending broadcast quality HD digital video up to 100m (w/SHR cable)
HDTV - High Definition TV.  Usually 720p or 1080i.  Includes the receiver & Dolby
HDTV-Ready - Maybe, Maybe not. May handle analog HD signals and not digitally encrypted ones.
HDV - Consumer HD
DV tape format (Sony, Canon, JVC, Sharp). Mini-DV size, but MPEG2-based.
HDV - HD Video disc. Yet another HD optical disc in China. (see EVD, HVD
HDVP - High Definition Video Processor. Sometimes used to talk about graphics processor capabilities
HE-AAC - High Efficiency AAC audio for MPEG4

Head Clog - Dirt on the video tape recording head.
Headend - MSO system that combines & modulates programs for cable distribution to homes.
Helical Scan - Video is recorded on an angled path on tape to fit entire field or frame.
HFC - Hybrid Fiber Coax. Optical fiber to near the home, copper coax to the home (Cable)
HH - Households
HID - High Intensity Discharge. Type of Metal Halide lamp.
HighMAT -
Microsoft's (with Panasonic) format aimed at organizing multimedia content.  See MPV.
HiperLAN2 - ETSI alternative to 802.11a
HLS - see HSL
HMI - Human Machine Interface. Industrial and automotive term for UI
HMI Light
- High efficiency light that is close to sunlight color
HMM - Hidden Markov Marker - a common speech recognition algorithm.
HOD - HBO on demand
HomeGrid - working on unified PLC/Coax/Phone line Ethernet communications - see
HomePlug - Networking over the home power lines.   HomePlug AV is a 200 Mbps version.  See BPL, PLC
Home Theater - Usually big screen & multiple speakers, sometimes furniture & walls, up to $1 Mil/more
hotspot - Usually refers to a WiFi area in public areas (e.g. Starbucks), whether free for for a fee.
HPNA - Home Phoneline Networking Assoc. defining a network transport over home's phone lines
HRRC - Home Recording Rights Coalition
HSD - High Speed Data
HSDPA - High Speed Downlink Packet Access. WCDMA-based packet data with 8-20 Mbps
HSL - Hue, Saturation, Luminance
HSM - Hierarchical Storage Management. Multi-level storage, less frequent content stored centrally.
HT - Home Theater
HTiB - Home Theater in a Box, kit of AVR & speakers, sometimes DVD, etc. to complement big screen.

HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language, the web's encoding language of choice
HTPS - High Temperature Poly Silicon. TFT
LCD w/faster transistors & performance. Used in projectors
HTTP - Hyper Text Transport Protocol, communication stds. for moving hyper text across the Internet
HTTPS - HTTP Secure. Uses SSL
HUB - Simple way to connect multiple devices together on a network. Less efficient than switches
Hue - Tint (color)
Huffman Coding - Simple compression method using pattern recognition. Lossless, but less efficient.

- Usually 50 or 60 Hz noise caused by poor grounding or connections. Comes from power lines.
HUT - Households Using Television. Number of TVs turned on at a given time
HVAC - Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning

HD Versatile Disc. Yet another HD optical disk in China (see EVD, HDV)
Holographic Versatile Disc. Holds 300 GB - 1.6 TB, faster transfer rates. May enter consumer space.
- Highly directional microphone
Hz - Hertz, or cycles per second.  kHz = 1,000 Hz.  MHz = 1,000,000 Hz.  GHz = 1,000,000,000 Hz















I2S (I-squared-S) - a digital cable audio link
IAD - Integrated Access Device. Device that you access data and voice with in a DSL network.
IBC - International Broadcasting Convention - European equivalent to NAB
IC - Integrated Circuit, popularly known as a "chip".

- Inter-IC Bus. Philip's serial bus for embedded systems for control, diagnostics & power mgmt.
ICC - International Color Consortium. Promotes interoperability between color systems & vendors.
ICI - Inter-carrier Interference. Adjacent wireless channels start to interfere with desired signal.
ICT - Image Constraint Trigger.
ID3 - Metadata stored in MP3 files that can store titles, etc.
IDB - - ITS Data Bus
IDB-1394 - (IDB-M) IDB version of 1394 for automotive systems using POF. IDB-1394cu uses copper.
iDCR - Interactive DCR. In development for two-way MSO services
IDDA - International Disk Duplicating Association.
IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics - aka ATA for disk drive interfacing
IDTV - Improved Definition TV. Analog TV with processing, such as line doublers
IDTV - Integrated DTV. Set with integrated digital receiver (European term)
IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission.
IEC - Inter-Exchange Carrier.
IEC 61883 - Defines how AV equipment should behave on 1394
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IEEE1394 - Isochronous digital link, started by Apple, but suggested for DTV
IEEE1394a - Updated version of original 1394. 100, 200 & 400 Mbps
norganic Electroluminescent. A flat panel display technology. See TDEL
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
IF - Intermediate Frequency. Carrier is mixed with LO to create IF so lower frequency circuits can work.
IFB - Interrupted Feedback system. That earpiece to give announcer instructions while on camera.
IFO - Information file in a DVD that stores chapter information and other data.
IFPI - International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. International affiliate to RIAA
i-Frame - MPEG2 Intra-Frame, encodes a video frame w/o reference to others. Resets B & P reference

iHD - interactive HD used on HD DVD for interactive features.  aka HDi
IHDN - In Home Digital Network, an approach by DVB to describe a 1394-based network. See IPI
IIF - IPTV Interoperability Forum, run by ATIS
IKE - Internet Key Exchange. IETF standard for encryption key exchange
ILEC - Incumbant LEC. A local existing phone company. See CLEC
iLink - (Sony term) same as IEEE1394
IM - Instant Messaging.
Image Constraint - Lowers HD image to SDTV levels before being sent out over analog outputs
Image stabilizer - Reduces camera shake in image via optical or image processing tricks.
IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol. e-mail retrieval with more server flexibility than POP3
i-mode - DoCoMo mobile data services, most popular in Japan
Impedance - A form of resistance to AC electric current expressed in Ohms
IMS - IP Multimedia Subsystem. Cable term for advanced services over DOCSIS
IMT-2000 - International Mobile Telecommunications 2000. A 3G radio.
IN - Intelligent Network. See AIN
Independent - Station not affiliated with a network.
Infotainment - Term coined to describe information and entertainment convergence
Infrasonic - Audio below the ear's ability to hear, but can still be felt.
In/Out - Specified points in video used to extract a video clip during editing using an NLE
Insteon - protocol for RF and powerline communications for home automation
Intercast - (Intel) Sending data during VBI containing web and other info
Interlaced Scan - scans alternate lines each field, as opposed to Progressive Scan
InterLATA - Inter-local Access & Transport Area. Roughly equiv to long distance
Internegative - Intermediate film master from Interpositive used to make a released film print for exhibition
Interpositive - Intemediate film master used to make Internegatives
Intraframe Compression - Compresses each frame individually. No motion compensation
IntServ - Integrated Services. Ethernet QoS is centrally managed by router based on service. (DiffServ
Inverse Telecine - Converts video frame rate (~30 or 25 fps) back to original film rate of 24 fps
I/O - Input/Output. The signal lines a computer uses to sense or control things.
IP - Internet Protocol or Intellectual Property
Datacast Forum. IP services over DVB or DAB.
IPG - Interactive Program Guide (fancy EPG).  Also Imaging & Printing Group in HP.
IPI - IP Infrastructure, effort started by DVB to address IP traffic on a 1394-based network

IP over DVB
- See IPDC

IPPV - Impulse Pay Per View. Like PPV but viewer can order using RCU and watch immediately
- Inches per second for tape
IPS - In-Plane Switching. LCD technique, offering better viewing angle than VA, but poorer black contrast
IPsec - Internet standards for encrypting and authenticating I
nternet packets.

Microsoft's TV over IP scheme, showing up in Europe first
IPv6 - New IP addressing scheme with much larger address space than IP version 4.
IR - Infrared
IR Blaster - transmitting IR remote control codes to other devices so one device controls another device.
IRD - Integrated Receiver Decoder (satellite receiver)
IrDA - Infrared Data Association. Std., started by HP, for IR links between devices.
- Institute of Radio Engineers, morphed into IEEE
IRE - 100 IRE = picture white, 7.5 IRE = picture black. 140 IRE = 1 volt
irFM - infrared Financial Messaging. Digital payment using irDA
Iris - Controls the amount of light that makes it through the lens
IRMA - International Recording Media Association
ISAN - International Std Audio-Visual Number. Tags finished AV material with unique "dumb number"
ISDB - Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting. Modulation used in Japan. Similar to CODFM

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network. Only about 64 kbps over your phone lines.

ISF - Imaging Science Foundation
ISF 3c - ISF Certified Calibration Configuration for display calibration
ISM - Instrument, Scientific, Medical. 900MHz, 2.4GHz & 5GHz FCC license-free wireless bands

ISMA - Internet Streaming Media Alliance. Trying to set standards for streaming AV over the Internet.
International Organization for Standardization.  Also used like ASA for cameras
ISO 11172 - MPEG1
ISO 13818 - MPEG2 (ITU H.222)
Isobarak - 2 woofers fed out of phase to produce low frequency audio with less volume
ISP - Internet Service Provider, which these days can be just about anybody
Isonchronous - data must travel at a predicable rate (nice for video).  1394 is isochronous
ITC - Independent Television Commission. See Ofcom
ITDA - International Traffic Data Alliance. European standard for sharing traffic info.
ITO - Indium Tin Oxide, a transparent conductive material used in LCD displays.
ITRI - Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan)
ITS - Intelligent Transportation System. Another (mostly American) term for Telematics
ITU - International Telecommunications Union.
ITU H.222 - MPEG2
ITU 601 - (AKA CCIR 601 & 656) Component digital video recording std. 4:2:2, 8-bit digitizing
ITU 709 - Defines HDTV standard in Europe.
iTV - interactive TV.  Covers everything from simple IPG to full non-linear & multi-angle content
ITVA - International Television Association. See MCA-I
iVDR -
Information Versatile Disk for Removable usage (S version is secure, using SAFIA)
IVR - Interactive Voice Response system.  "press 4 for ..."
IVTC - see Inverse Telecine
IXC - Interexchange Carrier. Provides exchange between LATAs (e.g. AT&T, Sprint)





J1850 - Diagnostic bus for automotive.
- Java 2 Micro Edition. Aimed at consumer devices.
Interlaced TVs produce jaggies on moving objects because of odd/even scan problems
Java - Sun's programming language, adopted by many for Internet & device applications
JavaPhone - Java aimed at mobile phones
Java-Script - Interpretive programming language, not to be confused with Java
Java TV - Sun APIs for iTV. Streaming, conditional access, tuner control, on-screen graphics.
JBOD - Just a Bunch of Disks. A low cost storage arrangement vs. SAN
JEDEC - Joint Electron Device Engineering Council. Semiconductor standards.
JEIDA - Japan Electronics Industries Development Association
JEITA - (combined EIAJ & JEIDA) Japan Electronics and Information Technologies Industries Association
Jitter - Timing noise that can show up as distortion when a digital signal is converted to analog
JMF - Java Media Framework API. Enables AV in Java
JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group. Sometimes "JPG". Compression most used for photos
JPEG2000 - Newest version of JPEG, with lossless wavelet compression. For photos & movies (DCI
JPQTL - Japan Picture Quality & Technology Laboratory. Evaluates TV technology, etc.
JSSE - Java Secure Sockets Extension
JTAG - Joint Test Action Group (IEEE 1149) boundary scan testing of complex ICs
JTAPI - Java Telephony API. Part of JavaPhone. An interface to call control services.
Judder - Motion artifact created when converting between codecs. Film to video timing distortions.
Jukebox - Name given to some music servers
JVM - Java Virtual Machine. Runs Java interpretive programs.


K-Band - 18 - 27GHz
- 27 - 44GHz ("a" stands for "above").
- kilobits per second
Kell Factor
- ratio perceived analog resolution to progressive video. Larger the better, 0.7 is very good
Kelvin - Temperature scale, in this case used to indicate the "color" of white.

- Unix based encryption/authentication key authentication system
Key Light
- Main source of illumination (when outdoors, it is the sun)
Keystone - When the projected image is not square, but trapezoidal.
kHz - Kilo Hz. See Hz

Kilo - 1,000 decimal, or 2 to the 10th power binary (1,024)
Kintoscope - motion picture projector
KLV - Key Length Value. Metadata tells content type & length.
Knockout - Chromakeying to cut foreground subject away from background. Creates Alpha channel
Ku-band - 12-18GHz ("u" = "under"). Ku1 = 10.9-11.75; Ku2 = 11.75-12.5 (DBS); Ku3 12.5-12.75


L2TP - Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol. Sets up a VPN.
- optical wavelength "λ", often expressed in Angstroms.
- Local Area Network.  A network set up for a home or office area.
- See Control-L
LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Laser Disk - Old 12" version of today's DVD (though there are many differences besides size).
Laser TV - FP or RPTV using solid state laser light source. Wider gamut, longer life vs UHP
LATA - Local Access Transport Area. Geographic area an RBOC operates
L-Band - 1 - 2GHz.
LBS - Location Based Services. Example, seeing which gas stations are near you at any moment.
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display - usually used in transmissive mode for TV displays (direct or RPTV
LCLV - Liquid Crystal Light Valve. Transmissive LCD used in projectors.
LCOS - Liquid Crystal on Silicon - variant of LCD - light is reflected off LCOS surface to form picture
L-cut - See split edit
LDS - Local Distribution System. Used to interconnect cable headends
Lead-In - Starting area of CD or DVD with description of contents

- Last area of CD or DVD
LEC - Local Exchange Carrier. Local phone company.  See ILEC, CLEC
LED - Light Emitting Display
Letterbox - when a widescreen image needs the black bands on top and bottom to fit on display
LFE - Low Frequency Effects - the subwoofer. Or LFE track
Line Doubler - converts 480i to 480p (motion adaptive doublers create 60 frames/second)
Line Level - Signal from the pre-amps before they are amplified sufficiently for driving the speakers.
Line Split Burst - see Split Burst.
Line Twitter - Fine lines appear & disappear on interlaced video
linear TV or programming - standard TV show, as opposed to VOD or iTV
Linux - An open OS inspired by UNIX, used in big servers to embedded processors
Lip Sync - becoming a problem with fancy DVEs.  Spec = audio is within 15ms before/45ms after video
Live plus X - Ad measurement window. e.g. Live+3 day = show seen (live or DVR) within 3 days of airing
lm - Lumens
LMDS - Local Multipoint Distribution System. A fixed wireless solution for last mile. (e.g. WiMAX
LO - Local Oscillator. Mixed with Carrier to create IF
Longhorn - Microsoft code name for a next gen operating system with lots of media features.
Look Management - color grading (adjusting) a movie
Looping - Redubbing voice over video (to take out offensive words, for example)
Lossless - No image detail is lost due to codec
Lossy - Image detail or distortions due to codec
L-PCM - Linear PCM

LPM - Local People Meters. Nielsen devices that monitor TV viewing, replacing paper surveys.
LPTV - Low Power TV. For local community broadcasts.
LQT - Liquid Audio file format.  Also LA1.
LNB - Low Noise Blocker, used in satellite dish to convert signal to a lower frequency for coax
LNBF - Low Noise Blockdown Feedhorn, same as LNB
LTE - so-called Long Term Evolution (almost) 4G phone wireless (alt. to WiMAX)
lumen - Light from one candle (candela) on a unit surface. 100W bulb = ~1200 lumen. See ANSI Lumen
Luminance - represents video picture brightness
LUT - Look Up Table. Used to transform an image's color to requirements. Faster than algorithms.
Lux - light intensity unit (lumens/m2). Camcorders use lux to define usable lighting sensitivity.


















M-1 Connector - (Molex Microcross), DVI connector for digital/analog, includes USB. Used for projectors.
- File that stores MP3 play lists
- MPEG4 Industry Forum.
- Media Access Control. Low level interface to network with its own unique address (MAC address)
MAC Clone
- Allows device to assume MAC address of another device. Used in routers to fool an ISP.
- APS (and other) content protection schemes used on DVDs, etc. (PSP, Split Burst)
Mag rack
- archival programming on tape or disk
- Media Asset Management (see DAM, DMM)
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network.  A network set up for a bunch of homes or buildings.
MagicGate - Version of Memory Stick with copy protection, used for music
Marlin JDA - Marlin Joint Development Assoc. Intertrust, Sony, Panasonic, Samsung, Philips DRM
MATV - Master Antenna TV. Antenna serves a MDU
MB - Mega Bytes
MBOA - Multi-band OFDM Alliance.  Competing approach (USB-Forum), aimed at UWB
MB-OFDM - Multi-band OFDM. Signal is split between several tones, each fairly wide BW
M-Bone - Multicast Backbone. "broadcasts" content instead of point-to-point. Saves bw for big events
Mbps - Mega bits per second
MCA-I - Media Communications Association - International. For media communications professionals.
M-Card - Multi-Stream
M-CMTS - Modular CMTS. Part of the NGNA, adds IP based elements
mCommerce - Buying things using your mobile phone.
MD -
Sony's MiniDisk, aimed mostly at music.  Various capacities exist.  Uses ATRAC3
MD5 - Message Digest. 128 bit code, unique to a file. Used to check that file's integrity. SHA-1 used now.
MDU - Multi-dwelling Unit (e.g. apartments)
Media Block - secure parts of a projection/server system in digital cinema
MediaCyper - Motorola's CA system
Mediaplex - digdia term used to describe a STB media server with bells and whistles.
Mega - 1,000,000 decimal, or 2 to the 20th power binary (1,048,576)
Mega-Pixel - million pixels; but, 1/2 are usually green, 1/4 are red and 1/4 are blue, and not all are used
Metal Halide - lamp used in projectors. Brighter & longer lasting (1000-2000 hrs) than Halogen. (UHP)

Memory Stick - Sony's memory card, uses format control for tighter user experience. ( Duo, MagicGate
Memory Stick Duo - Smaller (about 1/2 the size) Memory Stick. Used in cameras/camcorders, etc.
Memory Stick Micro - Smallest version of Memory Stick. Used in phones, etc.
Memory Stick Pro - Newer version of Memory Stick w/higher capacity & less than 100% compatibility
MEMS - Microelectromechanical System (e.g. MDM and GLV
Metadata - Additional data stored with content that contains related information about the content
Meter-Lamberts - Similar to a Foot-Lambert, but for a square meter.  Also see Nits
Mid-point Click - Advertiser is paid only if at least half the video ad is watched
MFJ - Modified Final Judgement. 1984 breakup of AT&T into RBOCs
MFPC - Multiplexed Fiber Passive Coax. Head End (optical)->Node (optical)->Mini Node (coax)->home

MGT - Master Guide Table. Used in PSIP. Describes tables being sent. STT, RRT, VCT, EIT
MHEG-5 - Multimedia & Hypermedia Experts Group std for teletext in the U.K.

MHP - Multimedia Home Platform, Europe's version of DASE standard for iTV. See OCAP, ACAP
MHz - Mega Hz. See Hz
MIC - Memory in Chip. Some DV
/Mini-DV tape cartridges have small memory chip for storing metadata.
Micro - 1/1,000,000. ""
MicroMV - Sony's smallest & newest consumer digital video tape format. Records in MPEG2
Micron - 1 / 1,000,000 of a meter.
Microprocessor - core of a computer one a single IC, w/ or w/o instruction & data memory or I/O
microSD - very small SD flash card (about 1/4 the size of an SD card). Used in phones.
MID - Mobile Internet Device
MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Contains commands for controlling synthesizers for music
MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Sorts out attached file type based based on file extension
MIMO - Multiple In Multiple Out. Multiple transmitters & multiple receivers = diversity & performance
Mini-DV - Consumer grade DV tape format (Sony). 4:1:1, 25 Mbps, 30/60/80 min.
MiniSD - hard to imagine, but a smaller format for the SD card.
MJPEG - Motion JPEG.  Frame-by-frame compressed video format
MKB: Media Key Block, used in CPPM and CPRM for DVD copy protection
MLA - Micro Lens Array. Used in projectors to increase LCD brightness, soften screen door
MLA - Multi-Line Addressing. Speeds passive matrix
LCD response.
MLP - Meridian Lossless Packing. Audio encoding technique used by DVD-A
MMC - Multimedia Card.  Memory card often used in phones
MMDS - Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service. Didn't work out well. See WiMax
MMG - Massively Multiplayer Games. Example: Sims and Everquest.
M-Mode - CableCARD operating in Multi-Stream mode.
MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service. Like SMS, but contains photos, etc.
MO - Magneto Optical. Laser allows writing to magnetic spot for re-writable optical disc memory.
mobisode - short video show for mobile phones
Mocap - motion capture
Monitor Application - OCAP unbounded application that controls all other applications
MOS - Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Class of transistors using a metal oxide "gate" to control
Mobile IP - Protocol to allow the Internet follow your IP device as it moves around.
MOCA - Multimedia over Coax Alliance. Trying to use cable TV's coax cable for networking
Modem - Modulator/Demodulator. Interfaces digital device to a serial communication link.
Moir - image distortion when the image pattern is close to the display's pixel alignment
Mosaic - pattern of RGB or YUV filters on the image sensor to pick up color components of the image
Mosquito Noise - small aberrations in image due to video compression, commonly seen near edges
MOST - Mobile Oriented System Transport. Proprietary bus (network) for automotive multimedia
Motion Compensation - predicting what the next video frame might look like based on past
MOU - Memorandum of Understanding
MP@ML: Main Profile at Main Level, MPEG-2 profile used standard TV DVD
MP@HL: Main Profile at High Level, MPEG-2 profile used for HDTV
MP3 - MPEG1, Layer 3 = audio compression standard, now commonly used in music players
MP4 - Shorthand for MPEG4
MP+ - Musepack. A higher quality, less well known audio file format, similar to MP3
MPAA/MPA - Motion Picture Association of America, movie studio's lobbying arm
MPCD - Minimum Perceptible Color Difference, a measure developed by the CIE
MPEG - ISO Moving Picture Experts Group
MPEG1 - earliest video compression, used for video disks (not DVD
MPEG2 - most common video compression, used for DVD and DTV
MPEG2 PS - MPEG2 Program Stream. Assumes low error rates. Simpler longer packets allowed.

MPEG2 TS - MPEG2 Transport Stream. For higher error rate situations. Shorter 188 byte packets.

MPEG4 - newer video compression & way to create "objects", often used on the web, video clips, etc.
MPEG4.10 - MPEG4 part 10. see AVC
MPEG7 - defines content descriptors, such as history, copyright pointers, structure, storage formats

MPEG21 - defines description of content and processes for accessing, searching, storing protecting
MPEG-I - MPEG2 Intra-frame (I frame)
MPEG IMX - Sony camcorder format, using MPEG2
4:2:2P@ML, 50Mbps.
MPEG LA - MPEG's licensing authority
MPLS - Multiprotocol Label Switching. Backbone switching that handles IP and ATM traffic.
MPTS - MPEG2 Multi-Program Transmission System
Music (Multi)-Photo-Video. Format organizing multimedia content w/XML.  See HighMAT
MRAM - Magnetoresistive RAM. Uses magnetic state for non-volatile storage
MRAV - Multi-room Audio Video (also name of committee within CEA
MSA - Metropolitan Serving Area or Metropolitan Statistical Area for cellular phone licenses.
MSDVR - Microsoft DVR video file format using MPEG and added metadata
MSO - Multiple System Operator, aka cable company
MSRC - Media Security and Reliability Council. Working to ensure broadcasters, MSO, DBS after an attack
MTA - Multimedia Terminal Adapter. Cable gateway that handles voice & video over cable data network
MTBF - Mean Time Between Failures
MSTV - Association for Maximum Service Television. Broadcast and spectrum policy for television.
mtf - Modulation transfer factor. System's gain at specified spatial frequency (of contrasting lines)
MTF - mtf over a range of spacial frequencies. Measures detail & "depth" seen in picture.
MTTR - Mean Time To Repair
MUD - Multi-User Dungeon. Pre-dates MMG
MULTI-2 - Japanese cable encryption standard

- Sending data to multiple clients all at one time. See M-bone
MultiCrypt - Switch between two CA systems in STB using SmartCard to access DVB service (SimulCrypt)
Multipath - Wireless signals bounce around and recombine, sometimes attenuating each other
Multi-Stream - Capability of CableCARD to handle more than one encrypted stream (M-Card, M-Mode
Music Server - Device that collects, holds & sends music via a network, and can play music, too
Must Carry - MSO & DBS services must carry (most of the) local broadcast stations
MVA - Multidomain Vertical Alignment. LCD mode for faster response times. (ASV, OCB
MVPD -  Multi-Channel Video Program Distributors (e.g. Cable, Satellite, Telco).
MXF - Material Exchange Format - used in production to exchange AV between systems





NAB - National Association of Broadcasters (conference and lobbying organization),  See IBC
NAHB - National Association of Home Builders
NAND Flash - "Not AND" Flash. Logic configuration of flash optimizing density over random access. (NOR
nano - 1/1,000,000,000,  "n"
nanotube - very small carbon tube structures w/good conductivity. Potential use in displays & memories
NAS - Network Attached Storage. A HDD with an IP address, available to devices on the LAN
NAT - Network Address Translation. Allows 1 IP address to serve many IP addresses behind router
NATO - National Association of Theater Operators.  They are getting into digital cinema
NCTA - National Cable and Telecommunications Assoc.
Negative Gain Screen - A grey screen to reduce ambient reflected light in DLP projection systems
.Net - (Microsoft) Seamless access to multiple resources via Internet, incl. hosted services.
Network Connected Disc - see PID

Network DVR - DVR functionality is performed on central servers, not CPE
NFC - Near Field Communications. Used by SmartCards to link to base. Very short range. (NFC Forum
NFS - Network File System. Lets files on a networked disk appear like they are attached to your PC.
NGNA - Next Generation Network Architecture. MSOs are planning their next gen infrastructure

- Near Instantaneously Companded Audio Multiplex. Audio format used in Europe analog TV
Nits - See Meter-Lambert
NIC - Network (Ethernet) Interface Card.  These days it is integrated if available for the product at all
NLE - Non-Linear Editing, essentially video editing on a computer
nm - nanometer. Used in optical measurements and IC geometries (we're at about 90 - 45 nm)
NMPR - Intel's Networked Media Product Requirements. Interim version of DNLA
Non-repudiation - Ability to verify that you really did send something
NOR Flash - "Not OR" Flash. Logic configuration of flash optimizing random access over density. (NAND
nPVR - Network PVR, server-based, whether in an IPTV or MSO system
NRAM - Nanotube RAM. Non-volatile.
NROM - named by Saifun. Similar to flash, but uses ONO cell to hold 2 or more bits/cell
NTSC - National Television System Committee (or if you want "Never Twice the Same Color")
NVOD - Near VOD. Movie starts at staggered times so you can start every 15 minutes (for example)
Nyquist Frequency - A frequency twice the highest you want to digitize. Often you want even higher.


O&O - Broadcast station Owned and Operated by a network.
- Original Aspect Ratio, like letterbox
OBD - On-Board Diagnostics (automotive term). now OBD2.
OBEX - Object Exchange. Protocol for exchanging vCard & vCalendar info between devices.
OC-1 - 52Mbps on SONET. (DS-3
OC-12 - 622Mbps on SONET
OC-48 - 2.5Gbps on SONET
OCAP - OpenCable Application Platform. CableLabs' version of MHP for iTV. (See ACAP
OCB - Optically Compensated Birefringence. LCD mode for faster response times. (MVA, ASV
OCUROpenCable Unidirectional Receiver
ODRL - Open Digital Rights Language initiative, proposal for a DRM expression language.
ODS - Other Digital Stuff. E-Cinema content, advertising, live events, aka alternative content
OFA - One For All RCU
Ofcom - Office of Communications. UK regulator, including of TV
OFDM - Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation.
OFX - See OpenFX
Ogg - Open source codecs.  Ogg Vorbis = Audio. Ogg Tarkin = Video. Ogg Theora = Video. See Xiph
OHAP - Open Handset Alliance Project.  See Android
OHCI - Open Host Controller Interface for 1394. Std to which 1394 cards comply for Windows, etc.
Ohm - Measure of resistance to electrical current.  Higher ohms = higher resistance = less current.
OHP - Overhead Projector
Organic Light Emitting Diode. New emissive display, but needs work on display life
OLT - Optical Line Transmitter. Sends optical signals from CO to ONT found at the home
OMA - Open Mobile Alliance. Organization aimed at mobile services DRM for your phone (and more)
OMF - Avid's Open Media Framework. Multi-vender protocol sorts out AV files for media exchange.

OMFI - Open Media Framework Interchange. Replaced by AAF.
ONI - Optical Network Interface. Interfaces FTTH optical signal to the phone
ONO - Oxide-Nitride-Oxide structure used in NROM. This is an alternative to floating gates used in flash.
OnRamp - (JSR-242) interim subset of OCAP for legacy STB
ONS - Object Naming Service. Public service that helps sort out RFID tags via EPC-DS discovery.
ONT - Optical Network Terminal. At or in home unit for connecting to FTTH service
ONU - Optical Network Unit. Translates optical network to electrical network.
O&O - Owned and Operated station
OOB - Out-of-band signal. Carries routing & other mgmt. signals separate from voice/data/video signal

OpenCable - CableLabs self provisioned STB hardware spec with advanced features & OCAP

OpenFX - Open-source 3D, animation & rendering suite.
OpenH.323 - Open version of H.323
Opera - European PLC project
OPU - Optical Pick-up Unit. Optics, LASERs and sensors for CD and DVD drives.
Orange Book - Recordable CD specifications
OS - Operating System, like Windows, CE Linux or Wind River's.
OSD - On Screen Display, such as might be used for showing status of something over the video picture
OSGi Alliance - open service platform and APIs for all kinds of devices connected to Ethernet
OSTA - Optical Storage Technology Association. Also supports MPV
OTA - Over the Air transmission of TV, etc.
OTARD - OTA Reception Device
OTP - Opposite Track Path. Dual layer DVD - 2nd layer runs opposite 1st. Minimizes switch time. (PTP
OTP - One Time Programmable. AKA WORM
Overscan - Analog TV paints a picture that is wider than the screen to make sure edges are used














P2 - "DVCPRO P2", Panasonic's PCMCIA-sized flash media for HD Camcorders
- Peer to Peer. Network of computers that communicate as peers (no master).
P4P -
Proactive network Provider Participation for P2P, an optimized provider-friendly P2P network
- Networks break up content into packets.  Packets may take different paths to the destination.
- A move to packetize cable, e.g. voice, games, interactivity, and even video.
Paint Pots - Control knobs that control video color
PAL - Phase Alternate Line.  Alternative to NTSC (common in Europe). Doesn't need Hue adjustments
Palladium - Microsoft code name for a secure operating system
PAN - Personal Area Network.  A network (or equivalent) set up for your immediate area around you.
Pan-and-Scan - method of cropping widescreen video to fit in 4:3 screen
Panel Link - see TMDS
PAP - Protected Audio Path. Windows scheme for encrypting audio over user accessible busses in PC
PARA - Professional Audio Retailers Association. Merged with CEA
Parity - extra bits used to check for data errors, and sometimes error correction.
Passage -
Sony's low overhead system for encoded data w/2 different digital cable conditional access
Passive Matrix LCD - Addresses each pixel via row & column instead of individually. Lower performance.
PAT - Program Association Table. MPEG2 TS packet (PID 0) contains PMT PIDs
PBS - Polarizing Beam Splitter. Used in LCD projection optics
PC - Personal Computer, which these days is trying to be all things to all people
PCF - Portable Content Format. Part of MHP. Format aimed to work with a variety of target devices
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect. Bus for peripheral cards in PC
PCIe - PCI Express. Newer PCI
PCM - Pulse-Code Modulation, serial coding technique used for audio (CDs) (WAV format)

- PacketCable Multimedia. Adds QoS to PacketCable (controls latency and flow)
PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, credit card sized card
PCS - Personal Communications Service. Older term describing all kinds of new mobile phone services.
P&D - VESA Plug & Display.  Carried video, Firewire and USB.  Evolved into DFP.
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant, coined by Apple. Sometimes used as universal remote
Plasma Display Panel
PDR - Personal Digital Recorder.  TVAnytime term for a DVR.
Peak Gain - Screen's zero degree viewing access performance.
PEG Access - Public Education Government access to cable
Peer - computer with content to share that is connected to other peers. In BitTorrent, it has partial content. P2P - Peer to Peer network content delivery using a "swarm" of PCs that each send part of the package
P4P - Form of P2P that optimizes delivery by using mostly local PCs. Reduces bandwidth, faster delivery
Pel - see pixel

Peritel - see SCART
PES - Packetized Elementary Stream. PES packets form an MPEG2
P-Frame - MPEG2 Predictive Frame. Uses previous frames to predict next frame.  See i-Frame
PGP - Pretty Good Privacy. A public key method.
PHICA - POD Host Interface CA. ada CableLabs Manufacturer Root Certificate Authority.
PHILA - POD Host Interface Agreement (see CHILA
Phi Phenomenon - Mind falsely sees movement after several images are shown rapidly
Phosphor Aging - Phosphor's light output fades after lots of use. Causes burn-in.
Photo-CD - Kodak format for storing photos on a CD. Requires special player support
PhotoYCC - Color Interchange Space developed by Kodak to support Photo-CD
PHY - Physical Layer of a network.  It can be cabled, wireless, sent over the power line, optical, etc.
Picture Structure Flag - DVD flag indicates type of frame (top/odd, bottom/even, etc.).
PID - Packet ID. MPEG2 TS identification tag that shows with packets go with a particular program.
PID - Postscribed ID (aka Network Connected Disc); unique ID # for each CD
Pillarbox - Similar to letterbox, only bars are on the sides to fit 4:3 content on widescreens.
PIM - Powerline Interface Module. For home automation controls - interfaces to data sent over powerlines
Pink Noise - Test tone with equal energy per octave of bandwidth
PiP - Picture in Picture
Pirate - Anyone or organization that copies protected content illegally.
Pixel - a single dot of the image.  Note that a pixel may only contain red, green or blue information
Pixelation - Several pixels are combined to make image look blocky, intended or not.
Pixel Mapping - Mapping image's pixels to non-matching fixed-pixel display resolution.
Pixillation - Smooth motion is made to look jerky by removing frames (like old time movies)
PKI - Public Key Infrastructure.  Sets up CA methods for supporting public key exchange, etc.
PKIX - see X.509
Plasma -
Plasma TV panels.  Color is formed by phosphors excited by electrons in each cell
PLC - Power Line Communications (see PLC Forum)  See BPL (also: Programmable Logic Controller)

PLC-J - PLC Japan
PLUGE - Picture Line Up Generation Equipment - test pattern (black, dark grey) for setting black level
PLV - Production Level Video. High quality compression using motion compensation. Aimed at DVI
Photo Marketing Association.  Deals mostly with photography, and now digital photography
PMP - Pixel Mapping Processor.
PMS - Panatone Matching System. Identifies colors by a numbering system.

PMT - Program Map Table. MPEG2 TS packet contains audio, video, data PIDs for a program.
PND - Personal Navigation Device

PNG - Portable Network Graphics. Lossless image compression for Internet aimed at replacing GIF.
POD - Point of Deployment. CableCARD acts as a key you slip into a DTV to give  conditional access
Podcasting - Popularized by Apple's iPod, publishing content (e.g. news) via the Internet to portable players
PoE - Power over Ethernet (802.3af). 48V DC is injected on CAT5 to power devices.
POF - Plastic Optical Fiber
POI - Point of Interest. Telematics term to describe a place that you might want to know about
Point - see Rating Point
Poly-Silicon TFT - A faster type of transistor used in TFT LCD panels found in LCD projectors
PON - Passive Optical Network. Telco backbone. (EPON, BPON, GPON
POP - Point of Presence. Usually refers to a place you can call in to get Internet access.
POP3 - Post Office Protocol. Common e-mail protocol. Less sophisticated than IMAP
Port - A communication channel for TCP or UDP Internet traffic.
Port Glass - window through which a movie is projected onto the screen
POS - Point of Sale. handles ticket and consessions
Post - Short for Postproduction
Postproduction - All work done between capture and finished product
Post-roll - Ad inserted at end of show, usually seen as less effective than pre-roll
POTS - Plain old telephone system

PowerKey -
Scientific Atlanta's CA system
Pay-per-click method of paying for advertising
- Pixels per inch. Seen mostly in cell phone and eBook display specs.
PPM - Peak Program level Meter. Like a VU meter, but indicates short spikes better.
PPM - Portable People Meters (Arbitron), measures consumer listening/viewing habits

PPV - Pay-Per-View, only a modestly successful service. See IPPV
PRAM - Phase change RAM.  Non-volatile.  Electrically heats material to store bits. Future Flash replacement
Pre-Amps - Pre-amplifier, where initial weak signals are amplified to line-level, with some equalization
Pre-roll - ad inserted before start of show
PRML - Partial Response Maximum Likelihood. Applies DSP to extract data from noisy signal (e.g. disks)
Pro-MPEG - standards group working on interoperability of broadcast systems
Progressive Scan - scans all lines each field, as opposed to Interlaced Scan
provisioning - providing services and equipment to a subscriber (of cable, telephony, etc.)
Proximity Effect - Low frequencies are exaggerated when the microphone is held at a close distance.
PsF - Progressive video capture, with segmented even/odd line Frames for interlaced output compatibility
PSI - Program Specific Information. Cable data used to demultiplex transport stream to get program.(SI
PSIP - Program and System Information Protocol. ATSC method - sending EPG & other data (MGT). (SI
PSK - Phase Shift Keying. Modulation using phase position. 4PSK has 4 states, so 2 bits/symbol
PSNR - Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, comparing reconstructed compressed image to original
PSP - Sony's Playstation Portable
PSP - Pseudo-Sync Pulses, (Macrovision) added during VBI to upset VCR's AGC preventing recording
PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network. Traditional phone system.
PTP - Parallel Track Path. Dual layer DVD - both track run in parallel (multi-angle friendly). See OTP
PTP - Picture Transfer Protocol. (ISO15740) for transferring digital photos via USB
PTP/IP - PTP over IP.  Nikon proposal for transferring pictures over IP, including WiFi
Public Key - 2 key encryption system, 1 public/1private. Encrypts and verifies authenticity of documents.
PUMA - Protected User Mode Audio. Windows audio mode for protected content.
PUT - percent of Persons Using Television.  Also known as Persons Viewing Televisions (PVT)
PVP-OPM - Protected Video Path - Output Protection Management. Windows content protection scheme.

- Protected Video Path - User-Accessible Bus. Encrypts video on PCIe
PVR - Personal Video Recorder (also called DVR) (e.g. TiVo
PWM - Pulse Width Modulation. Value is represented by width of pulse.


Q - Electronic term that indicates the abruptness of a filter's (or equalizer's) cut-off.
QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. Codes bits as amplitude & phase. 256 QAM = 8 bits/symbol
QCIF - Quarter CIF. 176x120 or 176x144 resolution.
- Quantum Field on Silicon. An FED type display derivative
- Quality of Service, an issue when you try to send video over Ethernet
QoS Policy Propagation via Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). QoS determined by client situation (device or service)
QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.  Encodes bits in one of 4 phase modes = 2 bits/symbol
QTVR - Quicktime
Quicktime - Apple streaming format for AV
QuVIS QPE wavelet - "Quality Priority Encoding". Proprietary wavelet encoding used in digital cinema

- Quarter VGA. 240x320 resolution.
qWave - Qualtity Windows AV Experience. A QOS stack for multimedia on wireless devices


R7.5 - CEA's AV Networking standards committee, with focus on 1394/Ethernet bridge & xHT
R7.6 - CEA's AV Networking standards committee with focus on DENi (former)
R7.7 - CEA's AV Networking standards committee with focus on wireless (former)
RADIUS - Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service.
RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks. Most configurations offer data protection.

RAID 0 - AKA Disk Striping. Useful for fast output, but offers no data protection.
RAID 1 - AKA Disk Mirroring. High data protection, high throughput, high cost.
RAID 3 - Uses Parity disk for protection. Highest protection, high throughput. Useful for media applications.
RAID 5 - Distributed Parity for high protection, high throughput. Useful for transaction applications
RAID 10 - Combines attributes of RAID 1 and RAID 0

Raleigh Fading - Holes in wireless reception due to multipath
Rally - Windows Rally, Microsoft system for easier setup & maintenance of devices
RAM - Random Access Memory. "Random" access to any memory location randomly (vs. sequentially)
RAMPRG - (DVD) RAM Promotion Group
Rating Point - About 1% of the TV homes in the U.S. (used for TV ads).  See Share
Raw - digital camera image in raw sensor data format instead of JPEG. Allows fancier de-mosaicing
RBOC -Regional Bell Operating Company. First there were seven...
RC4 - Rivest Cypher 4. Optionally used to encrypt PacketCable
RCA - (Radio Corp. of America) name used to describe simple and common coax connector
RCE - Regional Code Enhancement. Checks DVD players region code to see if DVD can be played
RCU - Remote Control Unit, that device you have too many of on your coffee table

- Reverse Data Channel. Cable channel - home to headend for Internet & mgmt. (5 - 42MHz).
- Radio Data System (European) FM subcarrier sends messages to your car radio
- TMC is Traffic Management System. Works with RDS to send traffic messages to radio
- Recordable DVD Council
Red Book -
Audio CD specifications
Red Button
- When pressed on the RCU invokes iTV content (mostly associated with BSkyB)
red laser
- Used in CD and DVD systems, 650 & 635nm wavelength
- Extra bits allow correction of single bit errors, detection of most multi-bit errors.
- Re-Equalization, inserts X-curve response to audio to remove edginess in some content..
- Streaming format for AV from RealNetworks.
render farm - array of computers used to render digital images and
- converting content intended for one type of display into another (e.g. for phone displays)
retrans - retransmission of a program on a different medium (e.g. local station TV to cable)
RF - Radio Frequency, a shorthand for wireless

- RF Interference. See EMI.
- RF Identification tag. Passive or active tag exchanges data for inventory, payment, etc. (EPC)
- see RG6
- shielded coax cable w/foil & braid shield.  Quad Shield is better.  RG59 is worse.
RGB - Red, Green, Blue
RGBHV - Red, Green, Blue, Horizontal, Vertical - high-end analog component video connection
RIAA - Recording Industry Assoc. of America. Represents the music label companies (IFPI
RIAJ - Recording Industry Association of Japan
Rich Media - describes multimedia content (music, video, etc.)
RIP - Raster Image Processing. Rasterizing an image for a TV or printer. Also, "ripping" music.
RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computing. Puts load on compiler instead of silicon.
RJ-11 - Telephone jack with 6 conductors for leased lines
RJ-45 - Connector used for Ethernet over CAT5 cable
RLE - Run Length Encoding. Patterns of bits are replaced by shorter code to get compression.
RLV - Recordable laser videodisc. Defunct laser disc std.
RMAM - Rich Media Asset Management (aka DMM, DAM), but perhaps implying more video
RMS - Root Mean Square.  A way to measure the equivalent power output
ROM - Read Only Memory. Example: CD
ROS - Run of Schedule, ads bought to run at any time at the discretion of the network.
Rotoscoping - Using live footage as basis for creating animation
Router - Directs network packets between networks. May integrate firewall, DHCP, NAT & VPN
RPC - Regional Playback Control. DVD CCA licensed. See RCE. RPC2 allows 5 changes.
RPC - Remote Procedural Call. Server sends client command to perform a routine & return results
RPTV - Rear Projection TV
RRT - Rating Regional Table. Part of PSIP, used to send program rating in a region.
RS-232 - Older serial interface, once used to connect modems, not for auxiliary controls
RS485 - differential signal multipoint serial interface sometimes for home automation/industrial control

RSDL - Reverse Spiral Dual Layer. Dual layer DVD - 2nd layer starts at innermost point. See OTP
RsGsBs - RGB with a sync signal on all lines
RSPC - Reed-Solomon Product Code, error protection for DVD
RSS - Really Simple Syndication. Podcasting and blogs use this to send content automatically.
RSVP - Resource Reservation Protocol. Requests Ethernet bandwidth for better QoS.
RTOS - A Real Time Operating System, often used in embedded systems
RTSP - Real Time Streaming Protocol
RTT - Radio Transmission Technology. A 2.5G CDMA protocol for 60 - 144 kbps data















SACD - Super Audio CD.  Sony/Philip scheme for next gen CD.  Competes with DVD-A
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers.
SAG - Screen Actors Guild
SAFIA - Secure Architecture for Intelligent Attachment device (used in iVDR)
- Speech Application Language Tags. Proposed language tags for voice commands.
SAN - Storage Area Network. High-end storage system with high reliability & performance.
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment for disk drives
Saturation - Color intensity. Zero equals shades of grey.
S-band - 2 - 4GHz. 1.7 - 3GHz for TVRO
S-Card - Single-Stream CableCARD (as opposed to M-Card
SCART - connects video, audio and other signals via 21 pin connector.  aka Euroconnector,
Scatter buy - last minute ad purchases that run during open times. (see Upfront
SCMS - Serial Copy Management System for CDs. Sets Copy once, copy none, no restrictions
SCR - System Clock Reference. MPEG pack is stamped with an SCR for program synchronization.

Screen Door - Visible blank lines between pixels in digital displays.
Screen Gain - screens direct reflections to make images appear brighter. Values above 1 offer gain.
SCSI - Small Computer Serial Interface. Several version exist. Used most often for disk drives.
SCTE - Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers
SD - Secure Digital. Memory card similar to MMC, but added security, bandwidth, formats control
SDA - Secure Digital Association
SDB - Switched Digital Broadcast. Treating regular cable TV channels like VOD to save bandwidth.
SDHC - Secure Digital High-Capacity, 2nd gen SDA card. Up to 32 GB, 6MB/s Transfer (class 6)
SDI - Serial Digital Interface video (270 Mbps; 360/540 Mbps 16:9; 1.485Gbps HD), std for production
SDII - Sound Designer II.  Apple pro-level uncompressed audio format
SDIO - SD Input/Output, expanded version of SD card slot for accepting peripherals (e.g. camera)
SDMI - Secure Digital Music Initiative.  Now defunct approach to secure music content
SDR - Software Defined Radio. Functions, modulation, protocols defined by software for flexibility & cost
SDRAM - Synchronous DRAM. Memory is synchronized to the CPU for faster data transfer.
SDTI - Serial Digital Transport Interface (25-50 Mbps), compressed variant of SDI for up to 4x real time
SDTV - Standard Definition TV, as in traditional (non-HD) TV resolutions.
SECAM - Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire.  Used in France as alternative to PAL or NTSC
SED - Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display.  Flattens CRT-type thinking.  Looks promising.
Seed - Peer computer in a BitTorrent network that contains full content file.
SEG - Special Effects Generator
Server - Device that can provide services, such as web pages, to clients. In a P2P, everyone is a server
SFX - Sound Special Effects.
SHA-1 - Secure Hash Algorithm 1. Authenticates messages. Used for SSL. Recently "broken"
Share - number watching a show as a percent of those watching TV at that time.  See rating
SHDTV - Super HDTV. 3840 x 2160 resolution.
SHP - Super High Pressure. Metal halide lamp with special sealing. Brighter, longer lasting. (UHP
SHVIA - Satellite Home Viewer Improvement Act. 1999 act allowed local TV station re-broadcasting, etc.
SHR - Super High Resolution coax cable for video over long lengths (e.g. 100m). BNC connectors.
SI - Service Information, delivered OOB for digital cable TV (SCTE 65). Also cable equivalent of PSIP
SID - Society for Information Display.  Professional group that works on display technology
SID Code - Describes where CD was made
SIF - Source Image Format. 352x240 at 30Hz. See CIF
SIGGRAPH - Special Interest Group for Computer Graphics.
Signal to Noise - Ratio of desired signal to the noise.  Higher is better.  Often expressed in dB
SIM - Subscriber Identity Module Card (MMC). Used in mobile phones (GSM) to identify user account

Simple Profile - Basic MPEG4 for telephony, portable devices, etc., with lower power.
SimulCrypt - DVB Provider simultaneously sends multiple keys, STB uses matching key CA  (MultiCrypt
SIP - Session Initiated Protocol. Manages VoIP, IM and video sessions.
SmartCard - Card with embedded processor/memory/keys. Contact or wireless.
SmartMedia - older and dumber memory card format, now superseded by xD
SmartPhone - A mobile phone with PDA features, etc.
SmartRight - authorized domain, based on smartcards, proposed by Thomson
Smear - Undesired trailing image during motion of a bright object against a dark background.
SMPTE - Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers
SMS - Short Message Service. Started w/phones, but creeping into other devices.
S/N - See Signal-to-Noise
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol for Ethernet management via the web

- Metal cone restricts light
SNV - Satellite News Vehicle
SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol. XML
/HTTP-based. Helps communication between devices
SoC - System on a Chip.
SONET - Synchronous Optical Network. Optical telecom backbone.
Space Shifting - enjoy content in a different place than where it was broadcasted or recorded
SPDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) - digital audio on coaxial cable or fiber optic (Toslink)
SPI - Stateful Packet Inspection. Firewall technique that inspects network packets to see if allowed.
SPIM - Spam sent via instant messaging
SPIT - Spam over Internet Telephony
Split Burst - Macrovision APS system: inverts color burst phase on certain lines so VCR records bad picture

Split Edit - Video and Audio are cut at different points
Spread Spectrum - Modulates wireless signal in the noise; properly keyed receiver can pick it out.
Square Pixel - each pixel is square, common for computer monitors, but analog TV is not square
SRAM - Static RAM. "Static" doesn't require refreshing (like dynamic does) and is faster.
sRGB - Standard RGB. Standard color space used by computer monitors & other devices.

SS7 - Signaling System 7. Circuit switched phone system being threatened by VoIP.
SSID - Service Set Identifier. Name of a WLAN
SSL - Secure Sockets Layer. Created by Netscape to encrypt Internet traffic using a public key

SSMS - Show and Schedual Management System in a digital cinema theater
SSP - Signal Switching Point. Routes AIN calls to the appropriate place.
Static IP - When a device sets its IP address to a fixed address instead of having it assigned by DHCP
STB - Set Top Box for your cable, satellite or terrestrial microwave
StEM - Standard Evaluation Material, used to test digital cinema technology
STN - Super Twist Nematic. A passive matrix LCD addressing scheme.
Streaming - AV is sent & rendered while data "streams" to you, vs. waiting for complete download.
STT - System Time Table. Part of PSIP. Provides reference time.
Subsplit - HFC upstream channels using 5 - 50MHz.
Sungun - Bright light mounted on the camcorder
Superbit - DVD recorded with higher video data rates. "Extras" are omitted to make room for video.
SVGA - 600x800 square pixels
S-VHS - A higher quality VHS format with more lines and deeper color.
S-Video -
analog video connection scheme for composite (Y/C) video (no audio)
SVOD - Subscription VOD.  Customer pays subscription rather than a per-use fee
SVP - Secure Video Processor. Thomson/STMicro proposal for securing video via silicon & flexible DRM
Swarm - set of computers connected in a BitTorrent used to download a particular file

- Adding sound effects
Switch - Switches network
packets to intended destination within a LAN. Doesn't have NAT, DHCP, etc.
Switched Digital Broadcast - see SDB
SXGA - 1280 x 1024 resolutions display
SXRD - Sony's Silicon Crystal Reflective Display, their version of LCOS
SyncML - XML-based protocol for synchronizing data between mobile device and network
Symbian - Operating system for smart phones.
Symbol - A segment of a serial communication signal. A symbol typically holds 2 or more bits of info.
Symmetrical Compression - Processing power to decode is same as encode. Most use asymmetrical
Synchronous Network - clocks control pace of bits, like Ethernet.  Not necessarily isochronous.










T1 - 1.544Mbps service over phone lines.
T3 - 44.736Mbps service from the phone company. 28 T1 lines.

- Terminal Adaptor. ISDN type modem
- Time Base Corrector. Adjusts video timing to bring up to broadcast accuracy.
- Trusted Computing Platform Alliance. Formed by HP, IBM, Intel and Microsoft. See TCG
- Trusted Computing Group. Creating a secure PC that applications can trust to run safely
- Buying things through services presented on your TV
- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, main transmission protocol for the Internet
Thick-film Dielectric ELectroluminescence. Flat panel using special phosphor & filters. (IEL)
TDM - Time Division Multiplexed data.

TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access. Times slots allocated to senders to share common link.
TDR - Time Domain Reflectometer. Finds problems in cables by measuring pulse reflections
TDL - Trusted Device List. Trusted secure equipment used in a digital cinema theater
Telecide - see Inverse Telecine
Telecine - Transfers a film image to video in real time
Telematics - Vehicle navigation, smart cruise control, and other tricks for the car
telescopic ad - An ad with multiple parts, in series or drawing you to another medium (e.g. web)
Temporal Resolution - Smallest amount of time a system can perceive.
TeraHz - Tera Hz, where Tera = 1,000,000,000,000. Red light starts about 450 TeraHz (
TFEL - Thin Film Electroluminescence. Alternative flat panel (blue is weak).
TFT - Thin Film Transistor. Used for Active Matrix LCDs
THD - Total Harmonic Distortion. Measures sum power of the 4 harmonics above the desired signal.
Three-Chip Camera - Or "3-CCD". Uses 3 sensors & dichronic prism for better video capture
Throw - Distance between projector lens and the screen
THX - Lucas Films theater sound system, available in home theater systems. (see Dolby, DTS
THX Select/Ultra/Ultra 2 - Certification program for speakers and equipment
TIA - Telecommunications Industry Assoc.
TIFF - Tagged Image File Format.  More accurate, but less efficient image compression format
Time Code - data that identifies every video frame with time and frame number
TiVo - Company that first created the DVR.  TiVo has become a verb.

TKIP - Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. Used in 802.11i. Per packet key mixing, msg integrity, re-keying.
TMDS - Transition Minimized Differential Signalling (for video), "Panel Link", 5M length, DVI w/dual link
TMS - Theater Management System in digital cinema, manages all show aspects (except POS)
T-navi - Matsushita's proprietary interactive television architecture and service.
TOD - Television on Demand.  Like having a DVR, but storage is owned by the MSO
tone - quality of a distinct color or sound; or a range of frequencies used in MB-OFDM
Torrent - metadata file for content found via BitTorrent system.
Toslink - plastic optical link sometimes used for audio on some DVD and CD players.
Tracker - Central coordinating computer that helps set up a BitTorrent download
Transcode - Translate content in one codec format to different codec format (e.g. MJPEG to MPEG4
Traix - Video cable, similar to Coax, with three conductors.
Transrate - Converting a (video or audio) stream from one bit rate to another
Trellis Code - Transmission coding technique for error detection & correction (pattern looks like a trellis)
Trick Play - adding OSDs, fast forward, pause, rewind, etc.
Triple Play - when high-speed Internet, Voice (telephony) & TV services are offered by one provider
Trojan Horse - File with hidden program, holding a virus or worm.
tru2way - Consumer brand name for two-way
OCAP services & products
Trucking - See Crabbing
TS - Transport Stream (MPEG-TS
TSC - Transport Scrambling Control bits in MPEG2 TS. Clear, Scramble w/even key, Scramble w/odd key
T-Stop - Similar to F-Stop, but set based on light passed through, not just iris size.
TTA - Telecommunications Technology Association, Korea
TTC - Telecommunications Technology Committee, Japan
TTL - Time to Live, number of hops an Ethernet packet is allowed to make before stopping
Tungsten-Halogen Quartz Light - Most used studio lighting
TV - Television, coined by Constantin Perskyi (1900); W3XK 1st lic. stn. (1928). 1st TV Ad, 1930
TV Anytime - Forum that promotes an open DVR standard
TVCT - Terrestrial VCT
TVRO - TV Receive Only satellite. See BUD
Twain - standard interface for scanners and some other image capture devices to a PC
Tweeter - Speaker that handles high frequency audio
Type-B Videotape Machine - 1-inch tape machine used in Europe.


UART - Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. Used for some serial communications (RS-232)
- Unidirectional Digital Cable Products
- Unidirectional Digital Cable TV. Related to one-way Plug & Play Cable MOU
- Universal Description Discovery & Integration, web-based database std for finding services
UDP - User Datagram Protocol. Less overhead than TCP/IP, can be faster, but less reliable
UHAPI - Universal Home API. Creates interface for AV software in TVs, DVRs, etc.
UHDTV - Ultra-HDTV. 7680 x 4320 resolution.
UHF - Ultra-High Frequency, 300MHz-3GHz; for TV (Channel 14 - 69, 470 - 806 MHz)
UHP - Ultra High Performance (pressure). Philips mercury proj. lamp: brighter, lower voltage, longer life
UI - User Interface
UMA Graphics - Unified Memory Architecture. Graphics memory is shared with main PC memory
U-matic - 3/4" tape video tape machine started by Sony.
Umbrella - Reflector used for lighting, white or silver inside finish.
UMD - Sony's Universal Media Disk for the PSP. 1.8 GB, red-dual-layer, 60 mm.
UMID - Universal Material Identifier. Tags a film clip, example: a unique "dumb number" for tracking
UMPC - Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer. Somewhere between a Tablet PC and handheld.
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. ETSI std. for theoretical 2Mbs mobile data
Unbounded Application - OCAP application that can stay with device and is not bound to a TV program.
Unicast - Point to point sending of information, as opposed to multicast.
UNIX - A robust OS, now tended to be used for big servers and workstations.
P - microprocessor
UPA - Universal Powerline Association - for PLC companies.
UPB - Universal Powerline Bus. 240bps home automation communications over power lines. (X10
Upfront - buying of year of ads (Sept to Aug) negotiated at once (see Scatter buy
UPLC - Universal Power Line Council.  Promotes BPL
UPnP - Universal Plug and Play, for device to device communication and discovery
UPnP AV - AV extension to UPnP
Upstream - Cable: from CPE to headend. Satellite: from dish to satellite.
- Uniform Resource Identifier.  Identifies objects found in the Internet.  A URL is a form of a URI.
URL - Uniform Resource Locator. e.g. ""
USB - Universal Serial Bus, common for connecting peripherals to a PC. 12 Mbps
USB 2.0 - 480Mbps version of USB
USIB - Universal Storage Interface Bus for external HDD connection
UTP - Unshielded Twisted Pair cable. (e.g. CAT5
UUID - Universal Unique Identifier. Used in MXF
UWB - Ultra-Wideband wireless, pulse or MB-OFDM, ~100 Mbps, short distance cable replacement
UWB Forum - Competing UWB std (see MBOA) using DS-UWB
UWB-NG - future 480 mbps UWB
UXGA - 1200x1600 square pixels







VA - Vertically Aligned. LCD switching method. Front viewing high contrast ratios, poorer at angles (IPS)
VALC - Vertical Aligned Liquid Crystal
VBI - Vertical Blanking Interval. CRT beam returns to top. Also used to send limited data.

- Variable Bit Rate - digitized bit rate varies with content (fewer bits during quiet zones) (see CBR)
VC-1 - Microsoft's video codec (WM9) adopted by HD-DVD and Blu-Ray
VC9 - Microsoft's "open standard" WM9 video codec submitted to SMPTE
vCalendar - Virtual appointment data (e.g from your PDA or Smartphone
vCard - Virtual business card (e.g from your PDA or Smartphone
VCD - Video CD.  Chinese format for storing video onto ordinary CDs
V-Chip - Reads XDS program data to determine program rating for TV viewing info and control
VCPS - Video Content Protection System (official name for Vidi).
VCO - Voltage Controlled Oscillator. Circuit used for creating tones or tuning circuits
VCR - Video Cassette Recorder
VCT - Virtual Channel Table. Part of PSIP. Sends information describing programs.
VDOC - Video (services) over DOCSIS
VDSL - Very high-bitrate DSL. see VHDSL, VDSL2 - not widely used
VDSL2 - next gen VDSL alternative, offering to standardize around DMT (vs. QAM). Aiming at 25-100 Mbps
VESA - Video Electronic Standards Association, for displays
VFR - Variable Frame Rate. Ability to capture (video) at different frame rates.
VFX - Visual Effects

VGA - 480x640 square pixels
VHDSL - Very High-speed DSL. up to 52 Mbps with reduced reach, unless done with fiber.
VHN - Versatile Home Network, EIA851 (CEA R7.4) 1394-based AV networking, never popular
VHS - Video Home System - familiar video tape. Now trying to go digital (D-VHS
Video Server - collects, holds, sends, plays video (music, photos) via network. Also serves VOD
Video Tricks - adding OSDs, fast forward, pause, rewind, etc.
Vidi - Philips/HP copy protection scheme for DVD+RW. See VCPS
Viewing Angle - Maximum angle from off-center that a display can be viewed with good results
Vignetting - Lens distortion causes slight color variations at center or edges of image
Viiv - (pronounced Vīv) Intel's PC architecture for digital home multimedia experiences
V-ISAN - Versioned ISAN
VLAN - Virtual LAN. Devices on multiple LANs, but acting like they were on on LAN.
VLIW - Very Long Instruction Word. Used in Intel IA-64. Uses compiler to create efficient parallel code
VOB - Video Object file. MPEG2 file that contains the video on a DVD

- Voice over Cable Modem (aka VoIP)
VOD - Video on Demand
VoiceXML - proposed standard for voice commands
VoIP - Voice over IP. Allows MSO to offer voice (telephone) services. Packet, not switched routing.
VoWIP - Voice over Wireless IP
VPF - Virtual Print Fee. payment method that subsidizes digital cinema installations.
VPN - Virtual Private Network. Allows secure access to a firewalled network from outside the firewall
Vp-p - Voltage measured peak to peak.
VR - Virtual Reality
VRAM - Video RAM.
VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language. Browser oriented language for creating virtual reality.
VSB - Vestigial Sideband Modulation, used by ATSC
VTR - Video Tape Recorder, these days used regarding HD VTR
VUI - Video User Interface. See OSD
VU Meter - Measures sound in dB or % of modulation.


W3C - Worldwide Web Consortium, sets standards for the web.
WAN - Wide Area Network. Often describes the network a LAN links to for getting to the Internet
WAP - Wireless Access Point. Also, old wireless application platform that is now part of OMA
WapTV - a microbrowser used by BSkyB for iTV. Runs WTVML
Warchalking - Marking WiFi
hotspots to indicate type of access available (open, closed, WEP'd)
Watermark - Digitally altering content with identification code to thwart piracy
WAV - Audio codec format used by CDs. Fairly inefficient, so MP3 and others are preferred
Wavelet - Represents signal w/finite wavelets in contrast to Fourier. Nice for sharp discontinuities.
WBA - Wireless Broadband Alliance. Promotes WiFi hotspot interoperability
bmp format.
WCA - Wireless Communications Association international
WCDMA - Wideband CDMA. A 3G std. aka ITU
IMT-2000 with voice & data (up to 2 Mbps)
WDM - Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Different wavelengths of light in fiber optics increase bandwidth
Web4CE - CEA-2014. Puts CE's UI in web form on other devices for remote control (Samung/Philips)
Webisode - short TV episode put on the web, usually to draw attention to advertisements
Wired equivalent privacy   encrypt content sent over 802.11x.  Weak protection. See WPA
WFA - WiFi Alliance
WiBRO - Korean initiated mobile 30-50 Mbps wireless, proposed as a WiMAX
/802.16e profile
White Book - VCD specifications
White Noise - Audio test signal with equal power across all frequencies.
WiFi - Wireless Networking using IEEE802.11 (usually b, g or a)

WiFi Alliance - Certifies WiFi products
WiHD - see WirelessHD
WiMax - A wireless MAN approach (IEEE 802.16) for high bandwidth Internet to homes and nomads.
WiMEDIA - Alliance for promoting PAN aimed at multimedia applications.
WinCE - Microsoft's small operating system for devices.
Window - Time period that content is available to a particular class of media (e.g. DVD window)
WirelessHD - 60GHz 4Gb/s 33 feet wireless for uncompressed cableless HDMI
WISP - Wireless ISP
WLAN - Wireless LAN, usually 802.11 type.

- Windows Media 9.
- Microsoft's Windows Media Audio 9.  All in the WM9 family
WME - WFA's Wireless Multimedia Enhancement. Subset to 802.11e
WML - Wireless Markup Language. XML-based markup language for mobile phones.
WMM - Wi-Fi Multimedia, a subset of 802.11e aimed at AV experiences over Wi-Fi
WMV9 - Microsoft's Windows Media Video 9. Highly compressed. Pushing for adoption.
Wobulator - HP pixel shifting technique using "wobulating mirror" gives DLP higher effective resolution.
WOM - Write Once Memory
WOM - Word of Mouth advertising, aka "Buzz"
Woofer - Speaker that handles low frequency audio
WORM - Write Once, Read Many.  A CDR is such a media.
Worm - A virus that worms its way into the computer's operating system
WPA - WiFi Protected Access. Will evolve into 802.11i. Improves WEP security.
WPAN - Wireless Personal Area Network
WTD - White tail deer. Catches people that copy this glossary. Also, ITU's World Telecom Day

- Wireless TV Markup Language. An XML variant used for iTV by BSkyB in the U.K. (WapTV)
Wireless USB.  Aims at 480Mbs. Using MBOA
WVAN - Wireless Video Area Network - see WirelessHD
Wide VGA. 852x480 resolution.
WWVi -
defunct Worldwide Vision Initiative (Japan) aimed at TV over IP.
- widescreen XGA, 768x1366
square pixels



X10 - Limited low data rate communications sent over home's power lines for controlling lights, etc. (UPB)
X.509 - Public-Key
intrastructure (pkix)  ITU proposal defining digital certificates.
XAIT - eXtended Application Information Table. OCAP uses this to launch & control life of unbounded aps.

X-Band - 8 - 12GHz. Got name to disguise secret radar band during the war (WWII).

- Authorized Domain proposal by IBM
X-Curve - Intentional roll-off of audio above 2 kHz in some movies
xD - memory card format with more capacity, smaller size than SmartMedia. Not as popular.
XDS - Extended Data Service. Data packets sent w/broadcast to give program info, etc. (e.g. for V-chip
XGA - 768x1024 resolution, square pixel
xHT - Samsung's proposed Extended Home Theater interface that uses HTTP protocols (
xHTML - XML-based HTML

XLR - Connector used for "balanced audio", 3-lines (positive, negative, ground) reduce noise
XML - Extensible Markup Language. Used to describe content of a file or database.
XMP - Extensible Metadata Platform (Adobe). XML
metadata for rich media.
Xiph - Group dedicated to open source codecs. See Ogg
X-Over - See Crossover
XRT - Extended PC Remote Technology.  Intel remote transfer protocol for remote user interfacing
XviD - Ironic open source twist on DivX, which was itself started as open source
xvColor -same as xvYCC
- extended gamut YCC (JEITA proposed to IEC), about twice the gamut coverage of sRGB
XY Mic
- Stereo microphone arranged like the letter Y
X'Y'Z' - color space picked by DCI - expands beyond what eye can see

- Type of directional antenna, such as is used for UHF pickup of HDTV broadcasts.
Luminance/Chrominance component video for S-Video.
- or YCrCb. Similar to YPbPr, but digital
YCC - Device independent color space by Kodak
Yellow Book - Defines CD-ROM standard.  Based on Red Book
YPbPr - or YPrPb. Y = Luminance, Pb & Pr are color-Y (Blue
-Y/Red-Y) for analog component video
YUV YPrPb. some component video use YUV instead of RGB.  YUV has bandwidth efficiencies.
Z - Impedance.
Zebra Stripes - Areas on video monitor show stripes to indicate over/under exposure, etc.

- Wireless for controlling devices in the home, etc. Long battery life, 20-250kbs, 1-75 meter range
Z-sorting - (Z-buffering) 3D images are built up by building up image polygons in Z axis order

Send notes about errors or omissions to          Copyright 2007 DIGDIA - Gary Sasaki